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Review

Utilization of Legume-Nodule Bacterial Symbiosis in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

1
Department of Molecular Biology, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów Street 1I, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
2
Laboratory of Biocontrol, Application and Production of EPN, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Konstantynów Street 1J, 20-708 Lublin, Poland
3
Institute of Physical Culture Studies, Medical College, University of Rzeszów, Cicha Street 2a, 35-326 Rzeszów, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernard R. Glick
Biology 2022, 11(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050676
Received: 10 April 2022 / Revised: 24 April 2022 / Accepted: 25 April 2022 / Published: 27 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications)
The legume–rhizobium symbiosis is one of the most beneficial interactions with high importance in agriculture, as it delivers nitrogen to plants and soil, thereby enhancing plant growth. Currently, this symbiosis is increasingly being exploited in phytoremediation of metal contaminated soil to improve soil fertility and simultaneously metal extraction or stabilization. Rhizobia increase phytoremediation directly by nitrogen fixation, protection of plants from pathogens, and production of plant growth-promoting factors and phytohormones.
With the increasing industrial activity of the growing human population, the accumulation of various contaminants in soil, including heavy metals, has increased rapidly. Heavy metals as non-biodegradable elements persist in the soil environment and may pollute crop plants, further accumulating in the human body causing serious conditions. Hence, phytoremediation of land contamination as an environmental restoration technology is desirable for both human health and broad-sense ecology. Legumes (Fabaceae), which play a special role in nitrogen cycling, are dominant plants in contaminated areas. Therefore, the use of legumes and associated nitrogen-fixing rhizobia to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the soil is environmentally friendly and becomes a promising strategy for phytoremediation and phytostabilization. Rhizobia, which have such plant growth-promoting (PGP) features as phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, production of beneficial compounds for plants, and most of all nitrogen fixation, may promote legume growth while diminishing metal toxicity. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive description of the main effects of metal contaminants in nitrogen-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of using the legume–rhizobium symbiosis with both wild-type and genetically modified plants and bacteria to enhance an efficient recovery of contaminated lands. View Full-Text
Keywords: biorhizoremediation; heavy metals; legumes; phytoextraction; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; plant growth-promoting; rhizobia biorhizoremediation; heavy metals; legumes; phytoextraction; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; plant growth-promoting; rhizobia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jach, M.E.; Sajnaga, E.; Ziaja, M. Utilization of Legume-Nodule Bacterial Symbiosis in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils. Biology 2022, 11, 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050676

AMA Style

Jach ME, Sajnaga E, Ziaja M. Utilization of Legume-Nodule Bacterial Symbiosis in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils. Biology. 2022; 11(5):676. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050676

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jach, Monika Elżbieta, Ewa Sajnaga, and Maria Ziaja. 2022. "Utilization of Legume-Nodule Bacterial Symbiosis in Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils" Biology 11, no. 5: 676. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050676

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