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Review

Precision Preventive Medicine of Relapse in Smoking Cessation: Can MRI Inform the Search of Intermediate Phenotypes?

1
University Bordeaux, CNRS, EPHE, INCIA, UMR 5287, 33000 Bordeaux, France
2
EPHE-PSL University, 75014 Paris, France
3
Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, CHU Bordeaux, 33000 Bordeaux, France
4
Department of Psychiatry for Adolescents and Young Adults, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 75014 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributors.
Academic Editors: Michael Fritz and Marc Fakhoury
Biology 2022, 11(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010035
Received: 22 November 2021 / Revised: 17 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 27 December 2021
Addiction to tobacco is a serious health and economical problem because it is one of the most addictive and the most consumed substance in the world. Although well documented, and despite the desire of numerous smokers to quit, maintenance of abstinence is a daily challenge for most of them. The heterogeneity in achieving this maintenance raises the question of potential differences in brain reactivity. An emerging field of research has been interested in brain markers helping to identify individuals who are the most likely to relapse. Using brain imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), one can hope it will be possible to offer tailored care for each patient.
Chronic tobacco smoking remains a major health problem worldwide. Numerous smokers wish to quit but most fail, even if they are helped. The possibility of identifying neuro-biomarkers in smokers at high risk of relapse could be of incredible progress toward personalized prevention therapy. Our aim is to provide a scoping review of this research topic in the field of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to review the studies that investigated if MRI defined markers predicted smoking cessation treatment outcome (abstainers versus relapsers). Based on the available literature, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. We thus provide an overview of the results obtained and take stock of methodological issues that will need to be addressed to pave the way toward precision medicine. Based on the most consistent findings, we discuss the pivotal role of the insula in light of the most recent neurocognitive models of addiction. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking-cessation; addiction; MRI; neuro-biomarkers; insula; relapse smoking-cessation; addiction; MRI; neuro-biomarkers; insula; relapse
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rabat, Y.; Chanraud, S.; Abdallah, M.; Sibon, I.; Berthoz, S. Precision Preventive Medicine of Relapse in Smoking Cessation: Can MRI Inform the Search of Intermediate Phenotypes? Biology 2022, 11, 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010035

AMA Style

Rabat Y, Chanraud S, Abdallah M, Sibon I, Berthoz S. Precision Preventive Medicine of Relapse in Smoking Cessation: Can MRI Inform the Search of Intermediate Phenotypes? Biology. 2022; 11(1):35. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010035

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rabat, Yolaine, Sandra Chanraud, Majd Abdallah, Igor Sibon, and Sylvie Berthoz. 2022. "Precision Preventive Medicine of Relapse in Smoking Cessation: Can MRI Inform the Search of Intermediate Phenotypes?" Biology 11, no. 1: 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11010035

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