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Review

Mutual Interactions between Brain States and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: A Focus on Gamma and Slow Oscillations

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xinhua Shu, Zhiming He and Mustafa Nazıroglu
Biology 2021, 10(8), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080707
Received: 8 June 2021 / Revised: 17 July 2021 / Accepted: 21 July 2021 / Published: 23 July 2021
Electrical activity in the brain dynamically changes throughout the day. Abnormalities in brain activity have been associated with various brain disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While brain disorders stem from complex pathological processes, resulting in abnormalities in neural activity and cognitive deficits, recent studies have demonstrated that controlling brain activity can modify disease pathologies as well as cognitive functions. In particular, studies in mouse models of AD have provided promising results regarding the amelioration of AD pathology by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulations. In this review article, by focusing on AD, we provide an overview of this emerging field. We summarise how brain activity changes in humans and mouse models, and how different artificial manipulations of brain activity can modify AD pathology. Although further investigations are essential, this research direction will provide insight into non-pharmacological intervention strategies for dementia.
Brain state varies from moment to moment. While brain state can be defined by ongoing neuronal population activity, such as neuronal oscillations, this is tightly coupled with certain behavioural or vigilant states. In recent decades, abnormalities in brain state have been recognised as biomarkers of various brain diseases and disorders. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence also demonstrates mutual interactions between brain states and disease pathologies: while abnormalities in brain state arise during disease progression, manipulations of brain state can modify disease pathology, suggesting a therapeutic potential. In this review, by focusing on Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, we provide an overview of how brain states change in AD patients and mouse models, and how controlling brain states can modify AD pathology. Specifically, we summarise the relationship between AD and changes in gamma and slow oscillations. As pathological changes in these oscillations correlate with AD pathology, manipulations of either gamma or slow oscillations can modify AD pathology in mouse models. We argue that neuromodulation approaches to target brain states are a promising non-pharmacological intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; neuromodulation; neural oscillations; optogenetics dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; neuromodulation; neural oscillations; optogenetics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Byron, N.; Semenova, A.; Sakata, S. Mutual Interactions between Brain States and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: A Focus on Gamma and Slow Oscillations. Biology 2021, 10, 707. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080707

AMA Style

Byron N, Semenova A, Sakata S. Mutual Interactions between Brain States and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: A Focus on Gamma and Slow Oscillations. Biology. 2021; 10(8):707. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080707

Chicago/Turabian Style

Byron, Nicole, Anna Semenova, and Shuzo Sakata. 2021. "Mutual Interactions between Brain States and Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: A Focus on Gamma and Slow Oscillations" Biology 10, no. 8: 707. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10080707

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