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Review

Telomere Length and Oxidative Stress and Its Relation with Metabolic Syndrome Components in the Aging

1
Research Unit on Gerontology, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 09230, Mexico
2
Hematopoiesis and Leukemia Laboratory, Research Unit on Cell Differentiation and Cancer, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City 09230, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roberta Fusco
Biology 2021, 10(4), 253; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040253
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 18 March 2021 / Accepted: 19 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
A link between telomere length and some age-related diseases has been identified, including metabolic syndrome. So far, there is no mechanism to explain the origin or cause of telomere shortening in this syndrome; however, oxidative stress is a constant factor. Therefore, we reviewed scientific evidence that supported the association between oxidative stress and telomere length dynamics, also examining how each of the metabolic syndrome components individually affects the length. In this regard, there is strong scientific evidence that an increase in the number of metabolic syndrome components is associated with a shorter telomere length, oxidative damage at the lipid and DNA level, and inflammation, as well as its other components, such as obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, while for dyslipidemia, there is a little more discrepancy. The difficulty for the correct treatment of metabolic syndrome lies in its multifactorial nature. Hence, there is a need to carry out more studies on healthy lifestyles during aging to prevent and reduce oxidative damage and telomere wear during aging, and consequently the progression of chronic degenerative diseases, thus improving the living conditions of older people.
A great amount of scientific evidence supports that Oxidative Stress (OxS) can contribute to telomeric attrition and also plays an important role in the development of certain age-related diseases, among them the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is characterised by clinical and biochemical alterations such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and insulin resistance, all of which are considered as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases, which are associated in turn with an increase of OxS. In this sense, we review scientific evidence that supports the association between OxS with telomere length (TL) dynamics and the relationship with MetS components in aging. It was analysed whether each MetS component affects the telomere length separately or if they all affect it together. Likewise, this review provides a summary of the structure and function of telomeres and telomerase, the mechanisms of telomeric DNA repair, how telomere length may influence the fate of cells or be linked to inflammation and the development of age-related diseases, and finally, how the lifestyles can affect telomere length. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; telomere; telomerase; oxidative stress; aging; lifestyles metabolic syndrome; telomere; telomerase; oxidative stress; aging; lifestyles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gavia-García, G.; Rosado-Pérez, J.; Arista-Ugalde, T.L.; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, I.; Santiago-Osorio, E.; Mendoza-Núñez, V.M. Telomere Length and Oxidative Stress and Its Relation with Metabolic Syndrome Components in the Aging. Biology 2021, 10, 253. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040253

AMA Style

Gavia-García G, Rosado-Pérez J, Arista-Ugalde TL, Aguiñiga-Sánchez I, Santiago-Osorio E, Mendoza-Núñez VM. Telomere Length and Oxidative Stress and Its Relation with Metabolic Syndrome Components in the Aging. Biology. 2021; 10(4):253. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040253

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gavia-García, Graciela, Juana Rosado-Pérez, Taide L. Arista-Ugalde, Itzen Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio, and Víctor M. Mendoza-Núñez 2021. "Telomere Length and Oxidative Stress and Its Relation with Metabolic Syndrome Components in the Aging" Biology 10, no. 4: 253. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10040253

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