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Review

A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment: A Literature Review

1
Centre for Health and Exercise Science Research, Sarcopenic Research Unit, Department of Sport, Physical Education and Health, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong 999077, China
2
FEBT, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Bangkok 12120, Thailand
3
University Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, Witty Fit, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlo Reggiani
Biology 2021, 10(12), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121354
Received: 11 November 2021 / Revised: 16 December 2021 / Accepted: 18 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
Sarcopenia is characterized by an accelerated decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength, which results in poor quality of life, disability, and death. In the literature, sarcopenia is defined as the progressive breakdown of muscle tissue. The prevalence ranges from 5% to 13% in people 60–70 years old and from 11% to 50% in people older than 80 years. The comparison of risk factors associated with sarcopenia based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (1 and 2) in Older People, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (1 and 2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia, and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health revealed no consistent patterns. Accordingly, the identification of a single risk factor for sarcopenia is unpredictable. Due to its “multifactorial” pathogenesis related to the involvement of a multitude of factors. In this review, we summarize 13 relevant risk factors associated with this disease that are important to consider prior to embarking on any related sarcopenia research. We suggest that researchers should concentrate on the biology of sarcopenia to develop a uniform consensus for screening this condition. In this review, we identify 50 biochemical markers across six pathways that have previously been investigated in subjects with sarcopenia. We suggest that these summarized biomarkers can be considered in future diagnosis to determine the biology of this disorder, thereby contributing to further research findings. As a result, a uniform consensus may also need to be established for screening and defining the disease. Sarcopenia is associated with a number of adverse economic and social outcomes, including disability, hospitalization, and death. In relation to this, we propose that we need to develop strategies including exercise interventions in the COVID-19 era to delay the onset and effects of sarcopenia. This suggestion should impact on sarcopenia’s primary and secondary outcomes, including physical, medical, social, and financial interactions.
Sarcopenia refers to a progressive and generalized weakness of skeletal muscle as individuals age. Sarcopenia usually occurs after the age of 60 years and is associated with a persistent decline in muscle strength, function, and quality. A comparison of the risk factors associated with sarcopenia based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia (1 and 2) in Older People, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (1 and 2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia, and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health revealed no consistent patterns. Accordingly, the identification of a single risk factor for sarcopenia is unpredictable due to its “multifactorial” pathogenesis, with the involvement of a multitude of factors. Therefore, the first aim of this review was to outline and propose that the multiple factors associated with sarcopenia need to be considered in combination in the design of new experimentation in this area. A secondary aim was to highlight the biochemical risk factors that are already identified in subjects with sarcopenia to assist scientists in understanding the biology of the pathophysiological mechanisms affecting the old people with sarcopenia. We also briefly discuss primary outcomes (physical) and secondary outcomes (social and financial) of sarcopenia. For future investigative purposes, this comprehensive review may be useful in considering important risk factors in the utilization of a panel of biomarkers emanating from all pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This may help to establish a uniform consensus for screening and defining this disease. Considering the COVID-19 pandemic, its impact may be exacerbated in older populations, which requires immediate attention. Here, we briefly suggest strategies for advancing the development of smart technologies to deliver exercise in the COVID-19 era in an attempt regress the onset of sarcopenia. These strategies may also have an impact on sarcopenia’s primary and secondary outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; biomarkers; genetic factors; psychosocial factors; behavioral risk factors; literature review sarcopenia; biomarkers; genetic factors; psychosocial factors; behavioral risk factors; literature review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Supriya, R.; Singh, K.P.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Dutheil, F.; Baker, J.S. A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment: A Literature Review. Biology 2021, 10, 1354. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121354

AMA Style

Supriya R, Singh KP, Gao Y, Li F, Dutheil F, Baker JS. A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment: A Literature Review. Biology. 2021; 10(12):1354. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121354

Chicago/Turabian Style

Supriya, Rashmi, Kumar Purnendu Singh, Yang Gao, Feifei Li, Frédéric Dutheil, and Julien S. Baker. 2021. "A Multifactorial Approach for Sarcopenia Assessment: A Literature Review" Biology 10, no. 12: 1354. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10121354

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