Challenges of Biomass Utilization for Bioenergy in a Climate Change Scenario
Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Chemistry, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, São Paulo, Brazil
Department of Biology, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP), University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-901, São Paulo, Brazil
Centre of Biological Engineering (CEB), Gualtar Campus, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John Korstad
Received: 11 November 2021
Revised: 29 November 2021
Accepted: 29 November 2021
Published: 6 December 2021
The most recent intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC 2021) has shown that the human influence on climate change has been unprecedented, predicting a global temperature increase of 1.5 °C in the earlies 2030s. The burning of fossil fuels has increased the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, amplifying the greenhouse effect in the last decades. In this scenario, the use of biorefineries, a renewable analog to petroleum refineries, has attracted a lot of attention since they use renewable sources as lignocellulosic feedstocks. However, climate change alters the temperature, rainfall patterns, drought, CO2 levels, and air moisture impacting biomass growth, productivity, chemical composition, and soil microbial community. Here, we discuss strategies to produce fuels and value-added products from biomass in a climate change scenario, potential feedstocks for bioenergy purposes, the chemical composition of lignocellulosic biomass, enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction, and other processes related to biomass production, processing, and conversion. Understanding these integrated factors involved in bioenergy production with plant responses to climate change shows that climate-smart agriculture is the only way to lower the negative impact of climate changes on crop adaptation and its use for bioenergy.