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Article

Comparative Genomic Characterization of Buffalo Fibronectin Type III Domain Proteins: Exploring the Novel Role of FNDC5/Irisin as a Ligand of Gonadal Receptors

1
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning 530005, China
2
Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
3
Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Govt. College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
4
School of Medical Science, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4222, Australia
5
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sahiwal Campus, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
6
Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60000, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Hiroetsu Suzuki
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111207
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 12 November 2021 / Accepted: 16 November 2021 / Published: 19 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Reproductive Biology)
A total of 29 fibronectin type III domain (FN-III) protein genes from the buffalo genome were detected and characterized. The molecular and evolutionary analysis demonstrated the well-conserved nature of FN-III proteins with a variety of stable to unstable, hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and thermostable to thermo-unstable properties. For the first time, we predicted the binding scores and interface residues of FNDC5/irisin as a ligand for six representative receptors, having a functional role in energy homeostasis, and significant involvement in folliculogenesis, and spermatogenesis in buffalo.
FN-III proteins are widely distributed in mammals and are usually involved in cellular growth, differentiation, and adhesion. The FNDC5/irisin regulates energy metabolism and is present in different tissues (liver, brain, etc.). The present study aimed to investigate the physiochemical characteristics and the evolution of FN-III proteins and FNDC5/irisin as a ligand targeting the gonadal receptors including androgen (AR), DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 6 (DCAF6), estrogen-related receptor β (ERR-β), estrogen-related receptor γ (ERR-γ), Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), and nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 (NR3C1). Moreover, the putative role of irisin in folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis was also elucidated. We presented the molecular structure and function of 29 FN-III genes widely distributed in the buffalo genome. Phylogenetic analysis, motif, and conserved domain pattern demonstrated the evolutionary well-conserved nature of FN-III proteins with a variety of stable to unstable, hydrophobic to hydrophilic, and thermostable to thermo-unstable properties. The comparative structural configuration of FNDC5 revealed amino acid variations but still the FNDC5 structure of humans, buffalo, and cattle was quite similar to each other. For the first time, we predicted the binding scores and interface residues of FNDC5/irisin as a ligand for six representative receptors having a functional role in energy homeostasis, and a significant involvement in folliculogenesis and spermatogenesis in buffalo. View Full-Text
Keywords: buffalo; FN-III proteins; FNDC5/irisin; receptors; binding affinities buffalo; FN-III proteins; FNDC5/irisin; receptors; binding affinities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, S.; Hassan, F.-u.; Luo, Y.; Fatima, I.; Ahmed, I.; Ihsan, A.; Safdar, W.; Liu, Q.; Rehman, S.u. Comparative Genomic Characterization of Buffalo Fibronectin Type III Domain Proteins: Exploring the Novel Role of FNDC5/Irisin as a Ligand of Gonadal Receptors. Biology 2021, 10, 1207. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111207

AMA Style

Wu S, Hassan F-u, Luo Y, Fatima I, Ahmed I, Ihsan A, Safdar W, Liu Q, Rehman Su. Comparative Genomic Characterization of Buffalo Fibronectin Type III Domain Proteins: Exploring the Novel Role of FNDC5/Irisin as a Ligand of Gonadal Receptors. Biology. 2021; 10(11):1207. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111207

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Siwen, Faiz-ul Hassan, Yuhong Luo, Israr Fatima, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Awais Ihsan, Warda Safdar, Qingyou Liu, and Saif u. Rehman. 2021. "Comparative Genomic Characterization of Buffalo Fibronectin Type III Domain Proteins: Exploring the Novel Role of FNDC5/Irisin as a Ligand of Gonadal Receptors" Biology 10, no. 11: 1207. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111207

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