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Article

Surface and Morphological Investigation of Synthesized Nanostructured Ridges from Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol-Albumin Blend—A Taguchi Design of Experiment Approach

1
Division of Regenerative Medicine and Cellular Therapies, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technological Institute of the Philippines, 363 P. Casal St. Quiapo, Manila 1001, Philippines
3
Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1104, Philippines
4
Department of Science and Technology, Bicutan 1631, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fibers 2020, 8(5), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8050029
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Fibers for Scaffold and Electrical Sensing)
We report the synthesis of presumably a “nanoridge” from the electrospinning of a hydrophilic polymer–protein blend. The material exhibits vertical elevation from the substrate, distinct from the morphologies seen in electrospinning. It is hypothesized that the formation of the nanostructured ridges is due to the migration of the charged protein to the apex through a highly polarized electric field in electrospinning conditions. In this study, we assessed the polyvinyl alcohol–egg albumin (PVA–EA) system in a solvent comprising of water, formic and acetic acid, together with the tip-to-collector distance (TCD) and solution flowrate. To quantify the factor effects in the surface properties of the material, a Taguchi design of experiment was used. The ridge heights observed ranged from 84.8–639.9 nm, and the material height is predominantly affected by the PVA–EA ratio and solution flow rate. The root mean square roughness was influenced by the TCD and flow rate, which has values ranging from 11.37–57.56 nm. In evaluating the sharpness of the ridge, we used the radius of curvature, where the TCD highly affects the apex sharpness. The work offers not just a likely new class of morphology, but a new perspective on the surface characterization of an electrospun material which could affect the performance of such a use in biological and physical systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrospinning; nanoridge; egg albumin; polyvinyl alcohol; atomic force microscopy; surface characterization; design of experiment; Taguchi orthogonal array electrospinning; nanoridge; egg albumin; polyvinyl alcohol; atomic force microscopy; surface characterization; design of experiment; Taguchi orthogonal array
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramis, J.; Pajarito, B.; Natividad, C.; Ocampo, M.J.V.; Tugade, C.; Santos, J.A.; Delfin, R. Surface and Morphological Investigation of Synthesized Nanostructured Ridges from Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol-Albumin Blend—A Taguchi Design of Experiment Approach. Fibers 2020, 8, 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8050029

AMA Style

Ramis J, Pajarito B, Natividad C, Ocampo MJV, Tugade C, Santos JA, Delfin R. Surface and Morphological Investigation of Synthesized Nanostructured Ridges from Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol-Albumin Blend—A Taguchi Design of Experiment Approach. Fibers. 2020; 8(5):29. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8050029

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramis, Jopeth, Bryan Pajarito, Crisneil Natividad, Mark J.V. Ocampo, Crizaldy Tugade, John A. Santos, and Robert Delfin. 2020. "Surface and Morphological Investigation of Synthesized Nanostructured Ridges from Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol-Albumin Blend—A Taguchi Design of Experiment Approach" Fibers 8, no. 5: 29. https://doi.org/10.3390/fib8050029

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