The experimental data presented in this work show the effects of nozzle diameter, drawing speed, and formation temperature on the diameter and strength of basalt filaments and melt flow rate. Several series of basalt continuous fibers were obtained using a specially designed crucible of platinum–rhodium alloy with four nozzles of different diameters (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 mm). The conditions of the process varied in formation temperature (from 1370 to 1450 °C) and winding speed (from 300 to 1200 m/min). Melt flow rate was almost independent of the winding speed, indicating laminar flow of the melt through the nozzles and the Newtonian nature of the liquid. The results show strict correlations between fiber diameter, nozzle diameter, and winding speed. The diameter of the fibers had a significant effect on their strength. The tensile strength of the obtained basalt fibers varied from 550 to 3320 MPa depending on the formation conditions. The results of this work could be useful not only for scientists, but also for technologists seeking the optimal conditions for technological processes.
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