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Fibers 2018, 6(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020022

Facile Synthesis of Highly Hydrophobic Cellulose Nanoparticles through Post-Esterification Microfluidization

1
College of Environment & Resources, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
2
Forest Products Laboratory, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Developments in Cellulose Based Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

A post-esterification with a high degree of substitution (hDS) mechanical treatment (Pe(hDS)M) approach was used for the production of highly hydrophobic cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs). The process has the advantages of substantially reducing the mechanical energy input for the production of CNPs and avoiding CNP aggregation through drying or solvent exchange. A conventional esterification reaction was carried out using a mixture of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and concentrated sulfuric acid, but at temperatures of 60–85 °C. The successful hDS esterification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp fibers was confirmed by a variety of techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), solid state 13C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elemental analyses, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The CNP morphology and size were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as dynamic light scattering. The hydrophobicity of the PeM-CNP was confirmed by the redispersion of freeze-dried CNPs into organic solvents and water contact-angle measurements. Finally, the partial conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II through esterification improved PeM-CNP thermal stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: esterification; hydrophobic; cellulose nanoparticles; nanofibrils; microfluidization esterification; hydrophobic; cellulose nanoparticles; nanofibrils; microfluidization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, C.; Ma, Q.; Su, Q.; Bian, H.; Zhu, J.Y. Facile Synthesis of Highly Hydrophobic Cellulose Nanoparticles through Post-Esterification Microfluidization. Fibers 2018, 6, 22.

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