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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Effect of Transglutaminase to Improve the Quality of Either Traditional or Pectin-Coated Falafel (Fried Middle Eastern Food)

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80126 Naples, Italy
Analysis, Poison control and Calibration Center (APCC), An-Najah National University, P.O. Box 7 Nablus, Palestine
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 331;
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coatings and Interfacial Films for Food Applications)
In this study, the effect of transglutaminase (TGase) (5 or 20 U/g of chickpea proteins) on falafel dough was investigated. The resulting falafel balls were either treated or not by dipping them into a pectin (PEC 1%) coating solution. Acrylamide (ACR), oil, and water content were then evaluated. Texture profile analyses and in vitro gastric digestion experiments were also carried out. The ACR content was reduced by 10.8% and by 34.4% in the samples prepared with 5 and 20 U TGase/g, respectively. In PEC-coated samples, the reduction of ACR was equal to 59.3%, 65.3%, and 84.5%, in falafel balls prepared either without TGase or containing 5 U or 20 U of the enzyme, respectively. However, TGase treatment did not affect oil content, while the PEC coating reduced oil uptake by 23.5%. No difference was observed in the texture properties between the control sample and the one dipped in PEC, while these properties changed in samples prepared with the enzyme. Finally, digestion studies, carried out under physiological conditions, demonstrated that the falafels prepared in the presence of TGase were efficiently digested in the gastric environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: falafel; acrylamide; transglutaminase; pectin; oil uptake falafel; acrylamide; transglutaminase; pectin; oil uptake
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Asmar, A.; Giosafatto, C.V.L.; Panzella, L.; Mariniello, L. The Effect of Transglutaminase to Improve the Quality of Either Traditional or Pectin-Coated Falafel (Fried Middle Eastern Food). Coatings 2019, 9, 331.

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