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Open AccessArticle

The CRATI Project: New Insights on the Consolidation of Salt Weathered Stone and the Case Study of San Domenico Church in Cosenza (South Calabria, Italy)

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Department of Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
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Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Arvedi Laboratory of Non-Invasive Diagnostics, University of Pavia, 26100 Cremona, Italy
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YOuth in COnservation of CUltural Heritage, YOCOCU, 00175 Rome, Italy
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Department of Musicology and Cultural Heritage, University of Pavia, 26100 Cremona, Italy
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Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050330
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
This paper presents the results of a laboratory experimentation carried out on stone materials in the framework of the CRATI project (Knowledge and Restoration through Advanced Integrated Technologies) aimed at testing new products with consolidating properties by means of an integrated methodological approach. After the preliminary characterization of stone materials collected in the pilot site, the second stage of the activities within the project were focused on the formulation and testing of products for the conservation of the same materials against decay, especially salt crystallization, one of the most aggressive and common degrading processes. The San Domenico Church, located in the old town of Cosenza (Calabria, Southern Italy) has been chosen as the pilot site and for the in situ tests. Several specimens with the same features of the stone materials used in San Domenico church were collected from a historical quarry near the city of Cosenza. These specimens were treated and then artificially degraded by salt crystallization tests in order to evaluate their susceptibility to weathering intensity. Three different consolidating products were used; respectively, two commercial and another one formulated in laboratory: (a) a suspension of nanosilica (Nano Estel®); (b) a suspension of nanolime (CaLoSiL®), and (c) a suspension of nano calcium-hydroxide dispersed in isopropyl alcohol and then mixed with diammonium hydrogen phosphate. A systematic approach, including minero-petrographic, geochemical and physico-mechanical techniques, was applied to evaluate (a) the nature and main features of materials; (b) the efficacy of consolidating treatments, and (c) the resistance of treated stone to the salt crystallization processes. The tested products demonstrated a significant efficiency to consolidate and protect stone material samples, enhancing their resistance to salt crystallization. Thus, such a case history may be useful in order to plan appropriate restoration interventions that consider the interactions between the building stone and the protective/consolidating product. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocalcarenites; stone decay; soluble salt crystallization; consolidation treatments; hydroxyapatite biocalcarenites; stone decay; soluble salt crystallization; consolidation treatments; hydroxyapatite
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Ricca, M.; Le Pera, E.; Licchelli, M.; Macchia, A.; Malagodi, M.; Randazzo, L.; Rovella, N.; Ruffolo, S.A.; Weththimuni, M.L.; La Russa, M.F. The CRATI Project: New Insights on the Consolidation of Salt Weathered Stone and the Case Study of San Domenico Church in Cosenza (South Calabria, Italy). Coatings 2019, 9, 330.

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