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Laser-Sustained Plasma (LSP) Nitriding of Titanium: A Review

Advanced Production Engineering Group, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen, The Netherlands
Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, 212 EES Bldg, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Applied Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 30, N. Atherton St, State College, PA 16804-0030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 283;
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Surface Engineering)
PDF [8667 KB, uploaded 26 April 2019]


Titanium and its alloys possess several attractive properties that include a high strength-to-weight ratio, biocompatibility, and good corrosion resistance. However, due to their poor wear resistance, titanium components need to undergo surface hardening treatments before being used in applications involving high contact stresses. Laser nitriding is a thermochemical method of enhancing the surface hardness and wear resistance of titanium. This technique entails scanning the titanium substrate under a laser beam near its focal plane in the presence of nitrogen gas flow. At processing conditions characterized by low scan speeds, high laser powers, and small off-focal distances, a nitrogen plasma can be struck near the surface of the titanium substrate. When the substrate is removed, this plasma can be sustained indefinitely and away from any potentially interacting surfaces, by the laser power and a cascade ionization process. This paper presents a critical review of the literature pertaining to the laser nitriding of titanium in the presence of a laser-sustained plasma, with the ultimate objective of forming wide-area, deep, crack-free, wear-resistant nitrided cases on commercially pure titanium substrates. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser-sustained plasma; titanium; wear resistance; laser nitriding; case hardening laser-sustained plasma; titanium; wear resistance; laser nitriding; case hardening

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kamat, A.M.; Copley, S.M.; Segall, A.E.; Todd, J.A. Laser-Sustained Plasma (LSP) Nitriding of Titanium: A Review. Coatings 2019, 9, 283.

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