The clinical success of dental implantation is associated with the phenomenon of osteointegration. Geometry and topography of the implant surface are critical for the short- and long-term success of an implantation. Modification of the surface of endosseous part of the implant with sandblasting was of special interest for our study. Taking into account the advantages of currently used ceramic abrasives: aluminum oxide, titanium oxide, calcium phosphate, these materials are able to break down during collision with the treated surface, the possibility of incorporation of their residues into the implant surface, as well as the difficulty of removing these residues. This paper aimed to determine the preferred composition and the shape of the abrasive, as well as the treatment regime for ZrO2
sandblasting modification of the surface of the endosseous part of the dental implant. Tetragonal and cubic solid solutions are based on ZrO2
, as an abrasive that is applied for zirconium-niobium alloy sandblasting under different pressures. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, the physical and chemical state of the surface of implants as well as contact angle measurement and cell viability were used to assess surface after sandblasting. The results demonstrate the potential of using granular powders that are based on zirconium dioxide as an abrasive to create a rough surface on endosseous part of dental implants made from zirconium-based alloys. It does not lead to a significant change in the chemical composition of the surface layer of the alloy and it does not require subsequent etching in order to remove the abrasive particles. Based on structural and chemical characterization, as well as on cell viability and contact angle measurement, sandblasting by tetragonal ZrO2
powder in 4 atm. and an exposure time of 5 s provided the best surface for dental implant application.
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