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Coatings 2019, 9(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020112

Designing a Laboratory Bioassay for Evaluating the Efficacy of Antifouling Paints on Amphibalanus amphitrite Using a Flow-Through System

1
Department of Marine Environment and Engine System, National Maritime Research Institute, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0004, Japan
2
Department of Environmental Risk Consulting, Japan NUS Co., Ltd., Shinjuku, Tokyo 166-0023, Japan
3
School of Marine Bioscience, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
4
Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8131, Japan
5
Hiroshima R&D Centre, Chugoku Marine Paints, Ltd., Otake, Hiroshima 739-0652, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Antimicrobial Coatings)
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Abstract

With the aim of establishing a protocol for evaluating the efficacy of antifouling paints on different organisms, a flow-through laboratory test using triangular boxes was developed for cyprids of the barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite. Six different formulations of antifouling paints were prepared in increasing content (0 to 40 wt.%) of Cu2O, which is the most commonly used antifouling substance, and each formulation of paint was coated on one surface of each test plate. The test plates were aged for 45 days by rotating them at a speed of 10 knots inside a cylinder drum with continuously flowing seawater. The settlement behavior of 3-day-old cyprids released inside triangular boxes made from the test plates was observed. A decreasing number of juveniles settled on surfaces of test plates that were coated with paint containing more than 30 wt.% of Cu2O. Results of the laboratory bioassays were consistent with those from the field experiments. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifouling efficacy; flow-through; triangular box; Amphibalanus amphitrite; cuprous oxide; dynamic aging; repellant activity; raft experiment; bioassay; biofouling of ships’ hull antifouling efficacy; flow-through; triangular box; Amphibalanus amphitrite; cuprous oxide; dynamic aging; repellant activity; raft experiment; bioassay; biofouling of ships’ hull
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kojima, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Matsumura, K.; Satuito, C.G.P.; Seki, Y.; Ando, H.; Katsuyama, I. Designing a Laboratory Bioassay for Evaluating the Efficacy of Antifouling Paints on Amphibalanus amphitrite Using a Flow-Through System. Coatings 2019, 9, 112.

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