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Coatings 2019, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9010060

Properties of Nitrogen/Silicon Doped Vertically Oriented Graphene Produced by ICP CVD Roll-to-Roll Technology

1
IZOVAC Technologies Ltd., M. Bogdanovicha Str. 155-907, 220040 Minsk, Belarus
2
Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Brovki Str. 6, 220013 Minsk, Belarus
3
Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8, Czech Republic
4
SMC (Technological Centre), Square Shokin 1, 124498 Zelenograd (Moscow), Russian
5
National Research Nuclear University “MEPhi”, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow, Russian
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 2 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene-Based Composite Films)
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Abstract

Simultaneous mass production of high quality vertically oriented graphene nanostructures and doping them by using an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP CVD) is a technological problem because little is understood about their growth mechanism over enlarged surfaces. We introduce a new method that combines the ICP CVD with roll-to-roll technology to enable the in-situ preparation of vertically oriented graphene by using propane as a precursor gas and nitrogen or silicon as dopants. This new technology enables preparation of vertically oriented graphene with distinct morphology and composition on a moving copper foil substrate at a lower cost. The technological parameters such as deposition time (1–30 min), gas partial pressure, composition of the gas mixture (propane, argon, nitrogen or silane), heating treatment (1–60 min) and temperature (350–500 °C) were varied to reveal the nanostructure growth, the evolution of its morphology and heteroatom’s intercalation by nitrogen or silicon. Unique nanostructures were examined by FE-SEM microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray scattering techniques. The undoped and nitrogen- or silicon-doped nanostructures can be prepared with the full area coverage of the copper substrate on industrially manufactured surface defects. Longer deposition time (30 min, 450 °C) causes carbon amorphization and an increased fraction of sp3-hybridized carbon, leading to enlargement of vertically oriented carbonaceous nanostructures and growth of pillars. View Full-Text
Keywords: vertically oriented graphene (VOG); inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP CVD); roll-to-roll technology; supercapacitor; Li-ion battery vertically oriented graphene (VOG); inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP CVD); roll-to-roll technology; supercapacitor; Li-ion battery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rozel, P.; Radziuk, D.; Mikhnavets, L.; Khokhlov, E.; Shiripov, V.; Matolínová, I.; Matolín, V.; Basaev, A.; Kargin, N.; Labunov, V. Properties of Nitrogen/Silicon Doped Vertically Oriented Graphene Produced by ICP CVD Roll-to-Roll Technology. Coatings 2019, 9, 60.

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