In recent years, graphene and its derivatives have attracted much interest in various fields, including biomedical applications. In particular, increasing attention has been paid to the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on cellular behaviors. On the other hand, dicalcium phosphate (DCP) has been widely used in dental and pharmaceutical fields. In this study, DCP composites coated with rGO (DCP-rGO composites) were prepared at various concentration ratios (DCP to rGO concentration ratios of 5:2.5, 5:5, and 5:10 μg/mL, respectively), and their physicochemical properties were characterized. In addition, the effects of DCP-rGO hybrid composites on MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were investigated. It was found that the DCP-rGO composites had an irregular granule-like structure with a diameter in the range order of the micrometer, and were found to be partially covered and interconnected with a network of rGO. The zeta potential analysis showed that although both DCP microparticles and rGO sheets had negative surface charge, the DCP-rGO composites could be successfully formed by the unique structural properties of rGO. In addition, it was demonstrated that the DCP-rGO composites significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular calcium deposition, indicating that the DCP-rGO hybrid composites can accelerate the osteogenic differentiation by the synergistic effects of rGO and DCP. Therefore, in conclusion, it is suggested that the DCP-rGO hybrid composites can be potent factors in accelerating the bone tissue regeneration.
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