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Smart Food Packaging: An Umbrella Review of Scientific Publications

ClonBio Group Ltd., D02 XE61 Dublin, Ireland
Coatings 2022, 12(12), 1949;
Received: 23 November 2022 / Revised: 3 December 2022 / Accepted: 7 December 2022 / Published: 12 December 2022


The pivotal roles of smart packaging in the food industry are ensuring food quality and safety as well as providing consumers with important information about the food, allowing them to make more informed purchase/consumption decisions. The purpose of this study is to provide a holistic bibliometric analysis of smart food packaging. Bibliometric analysis collected 878 documents from the Scopus database. The annual trend revealed a three-phase growth, i.e., initial (1986–1999), development (2000–2016), and exponential (2017–2022). Since 2017, smart food packaging has attracted increasing research interest. From the keywords analysis, similar general topics of research were identified before and after the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19). Remarkably, COVID-19 accelerated research and development toward finding sustainable and safe bio-based materials. However, most smart packaging materials are still not commercialized mainly due to the high cost of production and the absence of international standard regulations. Overall, academia is steps ahead in commercialization, where novel materials and mechanisms are tested for their efficiency and safety. The widespread of smart packaging relies on finding sustainable and safe solutions that are feasible at large scale and accepted by consumers.

1. Introduction

Food packaging plays several pivotal roles in food protection, nutrient stability, and quality preservation. Moreover, it provides essential information about product shelf life, ingredients list, and nutritional labeling [1]. Nevertheless, the high amount of food packaging waste has increasingly become a serious environmental and economic burden [2]. It was recently reported that one-way packaging can represent up to half of the environmental impacts of the food value chain [3]. Therefore, shifting to reusable and recyclable packaging might contribute efficiently to waste management (e.g., plastic) [4]. This strategy aligns with Goal 11, Goal 12, Goal 14, and Goal 17 of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In 2019, the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has disrupted food supply chains worldwide [5]. COVID-19 induced global health and economic crisis that had a major impact on consumer attitude, dietary habits and perception of food safety, and packaging [6,7,8]. Additionally, it contributed to putting upfront the shortcomings of classic packaging, such as limited control of product quality and safety, as well as traceability. For the post-COVID-19 era, new strategies are being implemented to leverage the innovation of packaging to fit new purposes beyond those classic strategies [9].
By definition, smart packaging refers to packaging systems with embedded sensor technology used for foods [10]. Compared to the classic one, smart packaging comes as an innovative strategy with additional functionalities to extend shelf life and monitor freshness, improving product safety, guaranteeing high-quality standards, as well as supporting sustainability all along the food production chain [11,12]. The market of smart packaging is witnessing a fast growth and was valued at USD 22,257.6 million in 2020 and is expected to reach USD 38,662.0 million by 2030 [13]. Active and intelligent packaging are two variants of smart packaging. Based on the European regulation (EC) No. 450/2009 [14], active packaging is a system designed to deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or from the environment surrounding the food. Although active packaging is not a new concept, it has significantly evolved during the last decades [15]. The use of natural biopolymers (e.g., protein, starches, and cellulose) in the packaging material with biological activities (e.g., antibacterial and antioxidants) regulates the environment inside the packaging, ensuring freshness and extending the shelf life of the food [16,17]. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) defined intelligent packaging as materials that monitor the condition of packaged food or the environment surrounding the food [18]. This packaging consists of indicators, biosensor or data carriers attached inside or on the surface of the food package [19]. This system can communicate the conditions of the packaged product and its history (pathogens, toxins, time, and temperature) to the consumers without interacting with the food [12,20,21].
Although extensive research is currently underway, not all the developed smart packaging systems have been implemented at an industrial scale [17,22]. Costs and time related with the research and development of new packaging materials are hampering the growth of the market [19]. The nature and complexity of packaging materials can cause safety issues and thus requires further trials to test their toxicity, which also requires proper regulation [11,12]. Additionally, integrating new packaging materials within the existing systems requires time and investments [20]. Therefore, there is plenty of room for innovation to reduce the gap between research and commercialization [23,24]. In this light, this study intends to thoroughly investigate the research landscape and trends of smart food packaging. Scopus is recognized as the largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature covering a wide-range of disciplines [25,26]. In this study, Scopus was used as the source of bibliometric records, while for the data visualization, VOSviewer was employed. Bibliometric analysis enables the assessment of scientific production and main topics related to the smart food packaging. This analysis has been widely implemented to evaluate academic outputs of various research fields [27,28,29]. The main goal of the bibliometric analysis is to analyze the growth of research, main topics, geographical distribution, scientific impact, and key actors in the field [27,29].

2. Methodology: Bibliometric Analysis

In this study, the literature dataset was collected from Scopus database. Scopus is a web-based, multidisciplinary database hosted by Elsevier, and it provides bibliometric data of peer-reviewed articles published in scientific, medical, technical, and social science disciplines. Scopus covers different subject areas, publication years, document types, indexed sources (22,000) from over 5000 publishers worldwide, patents and funding data. Compared to other bibliometric databases, Scopus (Elsevier’s abstract and citation database) is a suitable database for the present study since it includes a multitude of fields, which is a mandatory criterion as proven by previous bibliometric studies [30,31].
On 29 October 2022, the literature search was conducted by entering the search queries (TITLE-ABS-KEY (smart AND packaging AND food)). Inclusion criteria were published records, including articles, comments, reviews, book chapters, and conference papers. With a further restriction to English as language, a total of 883 documents were collected. By setting the time span as ranging from 1986 to 2022, we obtained 878 documents. The collected documents were classified according to diverse aspects, i.e., number of documents per year, distribution by subject categories and by sources, and affiliation by country and institution. The final list of documents was analyzed using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 365, Washington, WA, USA). In a second step, the final excel sheet was divided into two tables, publications before and after COVID-19. The cutoff was decided based on the first article mentioning COVID-19.
In regard to keywords analysis, ‘all keywords’ (meaning in the titles and abstracts of the selected documents) and ‘authors keywords’ were analyzed and charted using VOSviewer software, developed at Leiden University’s Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, the Netherlands [32]. The VOSviewer charts were presented in bubbles and curved lines. The most used keywords were marked using larger circles. Different colors indicate different clusters with different keywords [32].

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Annual Trend of Publications

A total of 878 documents that met the research criteria were published from 1986 to 2022. Figure 1 visualizes the annual trend of the retrieved publications. The growth curve of scientific publications can be divided into three stages. During the initial phase, (from 1986 to 1999) the smart packaging concept was still seen as a futurist idea to overcome conventional packaging shortcomings. The second stage is characterized by a development phase that lasted from 2000 to 2016. During this period, the total number of publications was 247 documents. No clear trend was observed, with a fluctuation of the annual number of releases, in which the highest number of publications was recorded in 2015 (31 documents). The growing interest in smart food packaging could be fueled by the need of finding innovative solutions to overcome traditional packaging-related issues [33,34,35]. Owing to the continuously increasing customer experience expectations, the growing product complexity, and the waste reduction concerns, traditional packaging is no longer sufficiently adequate [36,37]. On the other hand, smart packaging enables changes (in the product and/or its environment) monitoring (intelligent packaging) and changes mitigation (active packaging) to provide a safe food product to consumers. Studies on nanomaterials applied in food packaging started to gain priority in research [37,38,39]. Moreover, the first generation of intelligent packaging emerged to solve safety and quality issues through the supply chain, and to reduce product losses [40].
Exponential phase is the third ongoing stage and it started since 2017. A dramatic growth of interest from the academia was observed showing a booming trend in scientific publications. Advances in materials and engineering also contributed to boost research in this sector [41,42,43]. New technologies, such as nanotechnology and artificial intelligence, offered new materials/films to improve safety and quality of foods with an extended shelf life [16,41]. Various nanomaterials are being studied to provide active, bio-based, and smart/intelligent packaging [44,45]. Several research funding calls, such as HORIZON-JU-CBE-2022 and H2020-JTI-BBI-2020, have been supporting projects with the aim of preserving/improving food quality and reducing food waste. In addition, bio-based packaging is gaining a lot of interest to replace conventional plastic. For instance, USABLE PACKAGING project and DanuBioValNet project are EU funded ongoing projects focused on levitating bio-based packaging.

3.2. Subject Categories

The total research areas identified were 26 and of these 21 had at least 10 publications. The top 20 research areas with the highest number of publications are illustrated in Table 1. The most prominent areas on smart packaging are Engineering, Agricultural and Biological Sciences, Materials Science and Chemistry, and Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology.

3.3. Most Prolific Countries and Institutions

A total of 79 countries participated in publishing the retrieved documents. Particularly, 30 countries had more than 10 publications. The top 20 prolific countries are shown in Table 2. India was the most prolific (119 publications) and was followed by the USA (112 publications), China (94 publications), and Italy (56 publications).

3.4. Most Prolific Institutions

In total, 150 institutions have contributed to the total record. However, only 9 of them had more than 10 publications, as illustrated in Table 3. Urmia University was the most prolific, with 28 publications. Other prolific institutions included Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (19 documents), University College Cork (16 documents), Kyung Hee University (13 documents), University of Massachusetts Amherst (13 documents), and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (13 documents).

3.5. Key Actors

In the list of relevant authors associated with smart food packaging, out of 2860 authors, 5 authors had more than 10 publications (Table 4).
Dr. Kerry, J. is one of the main actors, who has worked on food (meat products) smart packaging and biodegradable materials [36,46].
Dr. Moradi, M. stands out for his research in regard to the use of nanotechnology and electrospinning to develop films for active and intelligent packaging [42,47].
Dr. Rhim, J.W. has focused on bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications [39,48].
Dr. Liu, J. has worked on developing active and intelligent packaging films using biomaterials [49,50].
Dr. McClements, D.J. has contributed by research to nanomaterials and their use in developing smart packaging [51,52].

3.6. Most Prolific Journals

A total of 878 publications were published in 123 journals. Of these, 11 journals had at least 10 published articles. Table 5 shows the 10 most featured journals. From the analysis, the “International Journal of Biological Macromolecules” had the highest number of publications (40), followed by Food Packaging And Shelf Life, Trends In Food Science And Technology, Food Hydrocolloids, and Food Control.

3.7. Keywords Analysis

Scientific studies have used keywords to classify recent topics of interest in regard to smart packaging in the food industry. In this study, 6634 keywords resulted from the VOSviewer analysis of all keywords, while those relative to the author were 2246. Using all of them with a threshold of 20 occurrences, 82 keywords were found to meet this threshold and the strength of the links between their co-occurrence (Figure 2). As a result, three main clusters represented with three different colors (i.e., green, red, and blue) were identified. These clusters are closely related as illustrated in Figure 2.
Red showed general topics in regard to smart packaging and its role in the food supply chain. This cluster included words, such as active packaging, nanotechnology, modified atmosphere, food preservation, food processing, food microbiology, quality control, food labeling, food waste, food quality, and human. Remarkably, although intelligent packaging was among the list of 82 keywords used in Figure 2, it was not shown unlike active packaging. This suggests that more research is focused on active packaging compared to intelligent packaging since it has a longer history [40,44].
Blue consisted of keywords, such as biomolecules, biopolymers, and nanocomposite packaging materials. This underlines the current direction in research and proposals aiming at the promotion of naturally sourced materials to create packaging of foods [39,53,54,55]. Growing concerns over the environment and sustainability related to artificial materials are boosting scientists to find eco-friendly films [17,53,56].
Green showed specific natural compounds used in developing smart food packaging. This reflects the increased interest in biodegradable packaging materials, including anthocyanin, starch, cellulose, and chitosan [57]. Polysaccharides are versatile, biodegradable, non-toxic, affordable, sustainable, and available polymers [43,53,54]. Cellulose and chitosan are widely used for food packaging due to their good film and gel-forming ability, recyclability, and inherent antimicrobial properties [24,58,59]. Starches can be used for food packaging as an adhesive and additive but the mechanical properties of the resulting films still have some limitations [59,60,61]. Overall, some biomaterials have brittle texture, fast aging, and poor mechanical properties [62]. Therefore, scientists continue to search for solutions to improve their features. Creating a combination of compounds with complementary attributes resulted in films with enhanced mechanical properties [62,63,64]. For instance, polysaccharides have attracted extensive attention as a film-forming material for active and intelligent colorimetric packaging with the addition of anthocyanins [65]. Anthocyanins are pH-sensitive to the environment and thus are used in developing pH responsive smart films [66,67,68]. Colorimetric films can realize/facilitate real-time monitoring of food freshness [60,69,70]. At present, the use of anthocyanins in active and smart packaging films has attracted increasing attention in the field of food engineering [63,71]. Other pigments, such as curcumin, shikonin, alizarin, and betalain, with similar features to anthocyanins are used as freshness indicator films [55,72,73].
Using authors’ keyword options and a threshold of 6 publications, 69 keywords were found (Figure 3). In contrast to Figure 2, the authors’ keywords (Figure 3) captured more specifically the current research directions in the smart food packaging.
Authors’ keyword clouds were clustered in seven groups/colors:
  • Turquoise is the main cluster with “smart packaging” as the main keyword. This cluster contains works, such as “bacterial cellulose” and “biosensors”.
  • Orange covers keywords related to intelligent packaging with words, such as “nanomaterials”, “smart material”, “food spoilage”, and “food quality”.
  • Blue is closely related to the turquoise and orange clusters and includes keywords, such as “indicator”, “freshness indicator”, “electrospinning”, “curcumin”, and “shelf life”.
  • Purple focuses on polymers and biopolymers related to food waste, sustainability, controlled release, and antimicrobial packaging.
  • Green focuses on mechanisms of smart packaging and their safety with words, such as “quality”, “safety”, “spoilage”, “sensors”, and radio-frequency identification “RFID”.
  • Yellow had nanotechnology as a central nod. This cluster contained words, such as “nano sensors”, “food preservation”, “safety”, “food additives”, and “processing”. This reflects the interest in this technology in nanomaterials for developing intelligent packaging.
  • Red consisted of words related to packaging biomaterials with keywords, including “chitosan”, “starch”, “gelatin”, and their properties (i.e., antioxidant and antibacterial).

3.8. Impact of COVID-19 on Research Topics

Total publications (n = 878) were divided into two groups, i.e., before (n = 606) and after (n = 272) COVID-19. The total keywords before COVID-19 were 4484, while after COVID-19 were 3235. Using a threshold of 20 occurrences, 39 keywords were retained for the pre-COVID-19 period and 31 for post-COVID-19 (Figure 4).
For the pre-COVID-19 era, three main clusters (i.e., green, red, and blue) were identified. Blue was focused on packaging materials, such as nanoparticles and biomaterials (cellulose). Red was related to the importance of smart and intelligent packaging in food preservation and safety all along the production chain. Green focused on food control and the impact of food packaging on human health. Overall, academia was more focused on packaging materials in relatedness to food safety [38,74,75]. To ensure the safety of packaging materials in contact with food, regulatory authorities have developed guidelines and regulations for the risk assessment [37,75]. Nevertheless, this latter is not universal, but different systems have been developed around the world by agencies, such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA), Health Canada, and the European Commission [76,77,78]. In August 2009, EFSA published guidelines regarding the submission of dossiers for the safety assessment of active and intelligent substances used in food packaging in Europe [79].
For the post-COVID-19 era (Figure 5), researchers’ interest was focused first on the packaging role in food preservation and storage (green color). The unexpected emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the behavior of customers [80,81,82]. People tended to stockpile and buy more than they can consume due to the increased risk of shortages during the sanitary crisis [82,83]. This has urged more research to understand the impact of different types of packaging on food quality in association with innovative processing, such as nanotechnology [16,84]. Red cluster gathers packaging materials and biomaterials, such as anthocyanins and chitosan and their bioactive activities in the food, as well as chemical materials. This cluster contained the mode of detection, which is mostly chemical reactions related to pH and color change. H ions and ammonia are also among the identified keywords, and they are concrete examples of the color change on the intelligent indicator used for monitoring meat quality during storage. The use of smart packaging in meat products has been studied in several publications [69,85,86,87]. Meat is a staple food characterized by a high perishability [88]. During storage, the decomposition of fresh and processed meat products by enzymes and microbes produces volatile ammonia compounds, which are early indicators of quality/safety damage. Protein degradation during meat storage leads to the generation of ammonia, which is responsible for pH increase. Here, this volatile nitrogenous compound reacts with H+ ions and produces H ions [89]. The OH ions in the packaging are directly proportional to the pH value, which affect the change in the intelligent indicator [90].
In regard to authors’ keywords, 1399 were found pre-COVID-19 versus 1070 post-COVID-19. Considering a threshold of 6 publications, 35 keywords were retrieved for pre-COVID-19 compared to 27 after the pandemic. Figure 6 shows six clusters. Yellow has the central nod presenting smart packaging with keywords related to biopolymers, food quality, and nanocomposite. This cluster is connected to the light blue cluster that includes encapsulations and biosensors. Red and purple are connected and related to intelligent packaging types (sensors and indicators) and their role in food safety and food waste. Post-COVID-19, biodegradable material appeared among the most used keywords by authors (Figure 7, blue cluster). This suggests the shift toward more sustainable materials for environmental motives and increased awareness in finding solutions [12,17]. Green covered keywords related to the use of chitosan in making nanoparticles/material for packaging. However, post-COVID-19 research shows a higher diversity in biomaterials, such as starch, curcumin, anthocyanin, and shikonin (Figure 7). Blue is more of a holistic cluster showing topics related to agriculture, food, and packaging technology. Overall, the main topics related to food safety and packaging materials are remained the same before and after COVID-19. Nevertheless, more biomaterial is being studied after COVID-19 with the focus on food safety [8,91,92]. Probably, this is due to the increased pressure as a result of the international crisis, such as COVID-19 and wars to develop safe (for humans and planet) biomaterials for commercialization and their more broad use [91,93].

3.9. Challenges and Opportunities

Opportunities rely on the use of biomaterials with ingredients having bioactive activities, such as antioxidant and antimicrobial. Nanotechnology and electrospinning are contributing in making these bioactive nanoparticles with multifunctionality [16,94,95]. Further research is still needed for producing new packages from health beneficial sources. COVID-19 reinforced the urgent need for packaging biomaterials ensuring safety, convenience, and sustainability (Figure 8). The increased awareness on the association between food quality and safety, as well as health urged consumers’ demand for more information about what they are eating [8,91]. Smart packaging offering traceability and real-time information regarding the products would be beneficial for providing valuable safety information to consumers. Ecofriendly claims are attracting consumers due to increased awareness toward the impact of plastic on the environment [17,96]. This could encourage consumers to pay more for these types of products. E-commerce packaging has grown steadily in recent years, especially after COVID-19 [96]. Improved control and tracking of foods can be performed using intelligent packaging.
Smart food packaging is facing several challenges. The safety of bioactive material is a key factor to boost the shift from lab to industrial scale. There is still a need for guidelines with clear specifications and analyses to show the safety of material used in packaging. Mass production is still challenging, and solutions are required to reduce the cost, while being environmentally friendly, as well as safe for use by humans. The recovery of bioactive ingredients from agro-industrial by-products can represent a solution to develop nanoparticles [48,97]. For instance, in the EU, large amounts of vegetable by-products rich in carotenoids might contribute to the reduction in the cost of developing active packaging. The fast evolution in digitalization, such as artificial intelligence and sensors would support a faster growth in intelligent packaging materials [98,99]. Proving feasibility and cost effectiveness will boost the progress of this type of packaging as a good candidate to ensure food safety and quality. Moreover, 3D printing would support the designing and executing of custom-made films that fit with the product requirements [100,101].

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, smart food packaging is not a new concept, but it is increasingly considered as an effective solution to ensure food quality and safety. Currently, at academic level, it is in the development phase where different topics are being studied. The main research topics are food safety, packaging materials, health, sustainability, and food preservation. When dividing the scientific literatures in two groups, pre- and post-COVID-19, the main topics are the same, but a trend toward sustainable solutions, such as the use of biodegradable materials is more accentuated after COVID-19. This underlines that this moment of crisis ensured more recognition of the benefits of active and intelligent packaging technologies. The challenges are related to the economic feasibility and scalability of smart food packaging. Global times of crisis, including the pandemic and armed conflicts, are stimulating factors to policy makers, manufacturers, and regulatory authorities to join efforts toward the faster development of smart food packaging.


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Annual trend of smart food packaging publications.
Figure 1. Annual trend of smart food packaging publications.
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Figure 2. Word cloud based on the main keywords (82 words for a threshold of 20 publications each) related to smart food packaging. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 2. Word cloud based on the main keywords (82 words for a threshold of 20 publications each) related to smart food packaging. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 3. Word cloud based on the authors’ keywords (69 words) related to smart food packaging. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 3. Word cloud based on the authors’ keywords (69 words) related to smart food packaging. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 4. Word cloud based on all keywords related to smart food packaging during pre-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 4. Word cloud based on all keywords related to smart food packaging during pre-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 5. Word cloud based on all keywords related to smart food packaging during post-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 5. Word cloud based on all keywords related to smart food packaging during post-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 6. Word cloud based on authors’ keywords related to smart food packaging during pre-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 6. Word cloud based on authors’ keywords related to smart food packaging during pre-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 7. Word cloud based on authors’ keywords related to smart food packaging during post-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
Figure 7. Word cloud based on authors’ keywords related to smart food packaging during post-COVID-19. Figure drawn by VOSviewer [32].
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Figure 8. Opportunities and challenges of smart food packaging.
Figure 8. Opportunities and challenges of smart food packaging.
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Table 1. Main subject area related to smart food packaging, as classified by Scopus 1.
Table 1. Main subject area related to smart food packaging, as classified by Scopus 1.
Rank Subject Area DocumentsRecord (%)
2Agricultural and Biological Sciences31335.6%
3Materials Science24828.2%
5Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology17720.2%
6Chemical Engineering11913.6%
7Physics and Astronomy10211.6%
9Environmental Science708.0%
10Computer Science586.6%
12Economics, Econometrics and Finance394.4%
13Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics323.6%
14Business, Management and Accounting313.5%
15Social Sciences313.5%
16Immunology and Microbiology283.2%
18Earth and Planetary Sciences151.7%
20Health Professions121.4%
1 more than one can apply.
Table 2. The top prolific countries.
Table 2. The top prolific countries.
Rank Country/Territory Documents Record (%)
7United Kingdom445.0%
8South Korea424.8%
Table 3. The top prolific institutions.
Table 3. The top prolific institutions.
Institution CountryDocumentsRecord (%)
1Urmia UniversityIran283.2%
2Tabriz University of Medical SciencesIran 192.3%
3University College CorkIreland161.8%
4Kyung Hee UniversityRepublic of Korea131.5%
5University of Massachusetts AmherstUSA131.5%
6Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheItaly131.5%
7Ministry of Education ChinaChina111.3%
8CSIC–Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de los Alimentos IATASpain111.3%
9Tehran University of Medical SciencesIran 111.3%
10Universidade do MinhoPortugal 91.1%
11Hasanuddin UniversityIndonesia91.0%
12Yonsei University Mirae CampusRepublic of Korea91.0%
13Rutgers University–New BrunswickUSA91.0%
14School of Public HealthUSA91.0%
15Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasSpain81.0%
16Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesIran80.9%
17Universidade de VigoSpain80.9%
18Clemson UniversityUSA80.9%
19Universitas JemberIndonesia80.9%
20National Technical University of AthensGreece70.8%
Table 4. Most relevant authors by publications.
Table 4. Most relevant authors by publications.
AuthorsAffiliation Documents
Kerry, J.Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland15
Rhim, J.W.Department of Food and Nutrition, BioNanocomposite Research Center, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, South Korea12
Moradi, M.Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran11
Liu, J.College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, PR China10
McClements, D.J.Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, USA10
Table 5. The top prolific journals.
Table 5. The top prolific journals.
Rank Source Publisher, CountryDocuments Record (%)
1International Journal Of Biological MacromoleculesElsevier (Netherlands)404.6%
2Food Packaging And Shelf LifeElsevier (Netherlands)161.8%
3Trends In Food Science And TechnologyElsevier (Netherlands)161.8%
4Food HydrocolloidsElsevier (Netherlands)151.7%
5Food ControlElsevier (Netherlands)141.6%
6Iop Conference Series Earth And Environmental ScienceIOP Publishing (UK)131.5%
7Food ChemistryElsevier (Netherlands)121.4%
8Critical Reviews In Food Science And NutritionTaylor and Francis Ltd. (USA)111.3%
9Sensors And Actuators B: ChemicalElsevier (Netherlands)111.3%
10Carbohydrate PolymersElsevier (Netherlands)101.1%
11PolymersMDPI (Switzerland)101.1%
12Food Research InternationalElsevier (Netherlands)91.0%
13FoodsMDPI (Switzerland)91.0%
14NanomaterialsMDPI (Switzerland)91.0%
15Packaging Technology And ScienceWiley (USA)91.0%
16MaterialsMDPI (Switzerland)80.9%
17Acta HorticulturaeInternational Society for Horticultural Science (Belgium)70.8%
18Diabetes Self ManagementSAGE Publications Inc. (USA)70.8%
19Food And Bioprocess TechnologySpringer Nature (Switzerland)70.8%
20MoleculesMDPI (Switzerland)70.8%
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