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Article

Phytotoxic Evaluation of Phytosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Lettuce

1
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
2
Department of Biotechnology, The Institute of Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
4
College of Information Science and Engineering, Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China
5
School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University Melbourne, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
6
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
7
CSIRO Mineral Resources, Deep Earth Imaging-Future Science Platform, Kensington, WA 6151, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These two authors equally contributed.
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020225
Received: 12 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 13 February 2021
The increasing metal release into the environment warrants investigating their impact on plants, which are cornerstones of ecosystems. Here, Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) seedlings were exposed hydroponically to different concentrations of silver ions and nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for 25 days to evaluate their impact on plant growth. Seedlings taking Ag+ ions showed an increment of 18% in total phenolic content and 12% in total flavonoid content, whereas under Ag NPs, 7% free radical scavenging activity, 12% total phenolic contents (TPC), and 10% total reducing power are increased. An increase in 31% shoot length, 25% chlorophyll, 11% carbohydrate, and 16% protein content of the lettuce plant is observed in response to Ag NPs, while silver nitrate (AgNO3) has a reduced 40% growth. The lettuce plant was most susceptible to toxic effects of Ag+ ions at a lower concentration, i.e., 0.01 mg/L, while Ag NPs showed less toxicity, only when higher concentrations >100 mg/L were applied. Further, biomolecules other than antioxidant enzymes showed higher phytotoxicity for Ag+ ions, followed by Ag NPs with the concentration of 25, 50, and 100 mg/L compared to the control. Thus, moderate concentrations of Ag NPs have a stimulatory effect on seedling growth, while higher concentrations induced inhibitory effects due to the release of Ag+ ions. These results suggest that optimum metallic contents are desirable for the healthier growth of plants in a controlled way. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoecotoxicology; plant health; seedling; phytotoxicity; ultra-efficient nanoecotoxicology; plant health; seedling; phytotoxicity; ultra-efficient
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hasan, M.; Mehmood, K.; Mustafa, G.; Zafar, A.; Tariq, T.; Hassan, S.G.; Loomba, S.; Zia, M.; Mazher, A.; Mahmood, N.; Shu, X. Phytotoxic Evaluation of Phytosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Lettuce. Coatings 2021, 11, 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020225

AMA Style

Hasan M, Mehmood K, Mustafa G, Zafar A, Tariq T, Hassan SG, Loomba S, Zia M, Mazher A, Mahmood N, Shu X. Phytotoxic Evaluation of Phytosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Lettuce. Coatings. 2021; 11(2):225. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020225

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hasan, Murtaza, Kinza Mehmood, Ghazala Mustafa, Ayesha Zafar, Tuba Tariq, Shahbaz Gul Hassan, Suraj Loomba, Muhammad Zia, Abeer Mazher, Nasir Mahmood, and Xugang Shu. 2021. "Phytotoxic Evaluation of Phytosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Lettuce" Coatings 11, no. 2: 225. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020225

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