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Article

A Multi-Analytical Non-Invasive Approach to Aqueous Cleaning Systems in Treatments on Bowed String Musical Instruments

1
Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
2
Violin Making School of Milan, via Noto 4, 20141 Milan, Italy
3
Arvedi Laboratory of Non-Invasive Diagnostics, CISRiC, University of Pavia, via bell’Aspa 3, 26100 Cremona, Italy
4
Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A, 43124 Parma, Italy
5
Department of Musicology and Cultural Heritage, University of Pavia, Corso Garibaldi 178, 26100 Cremona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Joaquim Carneiro and Andréa Kalendová
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020150
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface and Interface Analysis of Cultural Heritage)
Restoration and conservation procedures for historical musical instruments involve several issues, also connected with their frequent being played. One of the most delicate procedures for their preservation is the cleaning of surfaces from soil and dirt which have accumulated over the years. In fact, when external particles reach the surface, a fraction of them can deposit on it. Moreover, the contact with the player can generate chemical-physical changes, rapidly warming and wetting the surfaces through sweat deposition. This work focused on the cleaning methods of surfaces of bowed string musical instruments by a systematic and analytical approach. The selective cleaning procedure of varnished surfaces from grime and soil needs to be performed without compromising the original matter. Therefore, a dirty surface was reproduced on a set of varnished mock-ups and different water-based cleaning systems—generally used by restorers—were tested. The procedures were monitored in each step with several analytical methods: multispectral imaging (near-infrared (NIR), IRFC, visible imaging (VIS), UV-induced visible fluorescence), stereomicroscopy, XRF and FTIR spectroscopies allowed us to non-invasively outline the cleaning system efficacy. The results highlighted different levels of cleaning and, in some cases, it was possible to identify the best selectivity for the different procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: musical instruments; cleaning; dirt; surfactant; non-invasive; violin; restoration; XRF; FTIR musical instruments; cleaning; dirt; surfactant; non-invasive; violin; restoration; XRF; FTIR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cazzaniga, I.; Gargano, M.; Invernizzi, C.; Ludwig, N.G.; Malagodi, M.; Canevari, C.; Rovetta, T. A Multi-Analytical Non-Invasive Approach to Aqueous Cleaning Systems in Treatments on Bowed String Musical Instruments. Coatings 2021, 11, 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020150

AMA Style

Cazzaniga I, Gargano M, Invernizzi C, Ludwig NG, Malagodi M, Canevari C, Rovetta T. A Multi-Analytical Non-Invasive Approach to Aqueous Cleaning Systems in Treatments on Bowed String Musical Instruments. Coatings. 2021; 11(2):150. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020150

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cazzaniga, Ilaria, Marco Gargano, Claudia Invernizzi, Nicola G. Ludwig, Marco Malagodi, Claudio Canevari, and Tommaso Rovetta. 2021. "A Multi-Analytical Non-Invasive Approach to Aqueous Cleaning Systems in Treatments on Bowed String Musical Instruments" Coatings 11, no. 2: 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020150

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