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Open AccessArticle

Superstrate Structured FTO/TiO2/In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells Fabricated by a Spray Method with Aqueous Solutions

by Dongho Lee 1,2 and JungYup Yang 3,*
PV Development Team, Energy Solution Business Division, Samsung SDI, Cheonan-si 30186, Korea
Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Gunsan-si 54150, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 548;
Received: 17 May 2020 / Revised: 3 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 7 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Thin Films: Design, Fabrication and Applications)
Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (C2ZTS4) solar cells have become a fascinating research topic due to several advantages of the C2ZTS4 absorber layer, such as having non-toxic and abundantly available components. Superstrate structured C2ZTS4 solar cells were fabricated on the top of a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with a spray pyrolysis method from the window layer to the absorber layer. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and indium sulfide (In2S3) were used as the window and buffer layer, respectively. The source materials for the C2ZTS4 and buffer layers were all aqueous-based solutions. The metallic component ratio, Cu/(Zn + Sn), and the sulfur concentration in the solutions were systematically investigated. The optimum ratio of Cu/(Zn + Sn) in the film is about 0.785, while 0.18 M thiourea in the solution is the best condition for high performance. The C2ZTS4 layers deposited at lower temperatures (<360 °C) yielded a low quality resulting in low current density (JSC). On the other hand, the C2ZTS4 layers deposited at high temperature (~400 °C) showed a low fill factor (FF) without degradation of the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and JSC due to the junction degradation and high contact resistance between the absorber layer and metal contact. The best cell efficiency, VOC, JSC, and fill factor achieved were 3.34%, 383 mV, 24.6 mA/cm2, and 37.7%, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: C2ZTS4 solar cells; earth-abundant materials; spray coating C2ZTS4 solar cells; earth-abundant materials; spray coating
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Lee, D.; Yang, J. Superstrate Structured FTO/TiO2/In2S3/Cu2ZnSnS4 Solar Cells Fabricated by a Spray Method with Aqueous Solutions. Coatings 2020, 10, 548.

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