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Open AccessArticle

One-step Synthesis of Graphene, Copper and Zinc Oxide Graphene Hybrids via Arc Discharge: Experiments and Modeling

1
Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, CNRS, LSPM-UPR 3407, Université Sorbonne Paris Nord, F-93430 Villetaneuse, France
2
Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de l’Université de Nouakchott AL-Assriya, Nouakchott BP 880, Mauritanie
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Boulevard St. Kliment Ohridski, 1756 Sofia, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040308
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Film Coatings for Multifunctional Applications)
In this paper, we report on a modified arc process to synthetize graphene, copper and zinc oxide graphene hybrids. The anode was made of pure graphite or graphite mixed with metals or metal oxides. After applying a controlled direct current, plasma is created in the interelectrode region and the anode is consumed by eroding. Continuous and abundant flux of small carbon, zinc or copper species, issued from the anode at a relatively high temperature, flows through the plasma and condenses in the vicinity of a water-cooled cathode leading to few-layered graphene sheets and highly ordered carbon structures. When the graphite rod is filled with copper or zinc oxide nanoparticles, few layers of curved graphene films were anchored with spherical Cu and ZnO nanoparticles leading to a one-step process synthesis of graphene hybrids, which combine the synergetic properties of graphene along with nanostructured metals or semiconducting materials. The as-prepared samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy filtered elemental mapping and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition to the experimental study, numerical simulations were performed to determine the velocity, temperature and chemical species distributions in the arc plasma under specific graphene synthesis conditions, thereby providing valuable insight into growth mechanisms.
Keywords: graphene; plasma; arc discharge; copper; zinc oxide; hybrids graphene; plasma; arc discharge; copper; zinc oxide; hybrids
MDPI and ACS Style

Kane, A.; Hinkov, I.; Brinza, O.; Hosni, M.; Barry, A.H.; Cherif, S.M.; Farhat, S. One-step Synthesis of Graphene, Copper and Zinc Oxide Graphene Hybrids via Arc Discharge: Experiments and Modeling. Coatings 2020, 10, 308.

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