Next Article in Journal
Fatty Acid Conjugation Leads to Length-Dependent Antimicrobial Activity of a Synthetic Antibacterial Peptide (Pep19-4LF)
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibacterial Activity of Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by the Octocoral-Associated Bacteria Bacillus sp. BO53 and Pseudoalteromonas sp. GA327
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Assessment of the Sensitivity of Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi to 6-Demethylmevinolin, a Putative Natural Sensitizer Able to Help Overcoming the Fungicide Resistance of Plant Pathogens
Review

Antimicrobial Secretions of Toads (Anura, Bufonidae): Bioactive Extracts and Isolated Compounds against Human Pathogens

1
Centro de Biodiversidad y Descubrimiento de Drogas, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT AIP), Clayton, Panama City 0843-01103, Panama
2
Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Apartado 0824-03366, Panama
3
Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, Guntur 522510, India
4
Scientific Station COIBA, (COIBA AIP), Ciudad del Saber, Apartado 0816-02852, Panama
5
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), Balboa 0843-03092, Panama
6
Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Apartado 0824-03366, Panama
7
Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, and Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(12), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120843
Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 20 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 26 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents, 2nd Volume)
Species of the family Bufonidae, better known as true toads, are widespread and produce bioactive substances in the secretions obtained from specialized skin macroglands. Some true toads have been employed as a folk remedy to treat infectious diseases caused by microbial pathogens. Recent publications based on in silico analysis highlighted the Bufonidae as promising sources of antimicrobial peptides. A review of the literature reveals that Bufonidae skin secretion extracts show inhibitory activity in vitro against clinical isolates of bacteria, resistant and standard strains of bacterial, and fungal and parasitic human pathogens. Secondary metabolites belonging to the classes of alkaloids, bufadienolides, and peptides with antimicrobial activity have been isolated from species of the genera Bufo, Bufotes, Duttaphrynus, and Rhinella. Additionally, some antimicrobial extracts and purified compounds display low cytotoxicity against mammal cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkaloids; amphibians; antimicrobial peptides; bufadienolides; Bufonidae; crude extract; parotoid gland; skin secretion; toad alkaloids; amphibians; antimicrobial peptides; bufadienolides; Bufonidae; crude extract; parotoid gland; skin secretion; toad
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodriguez, C.; Ibáñez, R.; Rollins-Smith, L.A.; Gutiérrez, M.; Durant-Archibold, A.A. Antimicrobial Secretions of Toads (Anura, Bufonidae): Bioactive Extracts and Isolated Compounds against Human Pathogens. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120843

AMA Style

Rodriguez C, Ibáñez R, Rollins-Smith LA, Gutiérrez M, Durant-Archibold AA. Antimicrobial Secretions of Toads (Anura, Bufonidae): Bioactive Extracts and Isolated Compounds against Human Pathogens. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(12):843. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120843

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodriguez, Candelario, Roberto Ibáñez, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Marcelino Gutiérrez, and Armando A. Durant-Archibold 2020. "Antimicrobial Secretions of Toads (Anura, Bufonidae): Bioactive Extracts and Isolated Compounds against Human Pathogens" Antibiotics 9, no. 12: 843. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120843

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop