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Article

Determination of Florfenicol, Thiamfenicol and Chloramfenicol at Trace Levels in Animal Feed by HPLC–MS/MS

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
2
Department of Hygiene of Animal Feedingstuffs, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24–100 Pulawy, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020059
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Paper in Antibiotics for 2019)
Administration of florfenicol and thiamfenicol through medicated feed is permitted within the European Union, always following veterinary prescription and respecting the withdrawal periods. However, the presence of low levels of florfenicol, thiamfenicol, and chloramfenicol in non-target feed is prohibited. Since cross-contamination can occur during the production of medicated feed and according to Annex II of the European Regulation 2019/4/EC, the control of residue levels of florfenicol and thiamfenicol in non-target feed should be monitored and avoided. Based on all the above, a sensitive and reliable method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous detection of chloramfenicol, florfenicol, and thiamfenicol at trace levels in animal feed. Analytes were extracted from minced feed with ethyl acetate. Then, the ethyl acetate was evaporated, the residue was resuspended in Milli-Q water and the extract filtered. The method was in-house validated at carryover levels, with concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 µg/kg. The validation was conducted following the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and all performance characteristics were successfully satisfied. The capability of the method to detect amfenicols at lower levels than any prior perspective regulation literature guarantees its applicability in official control activities. The developed method has been applied to non-compliant feed samples with satisfactory results. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-target feed; florfenicol; thiamfenicol; chloramfenicol; HPLC–MS/MS; validation; swine non-target feed; florfenicol; thiamfenicol; chloramfenicol; HPLC–MS/MS; validation; swine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gavilán, R.E.; Nebot, C.; Patyra, E.; Vazquez, B.; Miranda, J.M.; Cepeda, A. Determination of Florfenicol, Thiamfenicol and Chloramfenicol at Trace Levels in Animal Feed by HPLC–MS/MS. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020059

AMA Style

Gavilán RE, Nebot C, Patyra E, Vazquez B, Miranda JM, Cepeda A. Determination of Florfenicol, Thiamfenicol and Chloramfenicol at Trace Levels in Animal Feed by HPLC–MS/MS. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(2):59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gavilán, Rosa E., Carolina Nebot, Ewelina Patyra, Beatriz Vazquez, Jose M. Miranda, and Alberto Cepeda. 2019. "Determination of Florfenicol, Thiamfenicol and Chloramfenicol at Trace Levels in Animal Feed by HPLC–MS/MS" Antibiotics 8, no. 2: 59. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020059

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