Next Article in Journal
Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of Commercial Piperine and Piperlongumine in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobials
Next Article in Special Issue
Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Related to Persistent Endovascular Infection
Previous Article in Journal
Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Third Molar Extraction: Systematic Review of Recent Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Continuing Threat of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Review

Intracellular Penetration and Effects of Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Inside Human Neutrophils: A Comprehensive Review

1
Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
3
Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020054
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 4 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococci Antimicrobial Resistance)
Neutrophils are important assets in defense against invading bacteria like staphylococci. However, (dysfunctioning) neutrophils can also serve as reservoir for pathogens that are able to survive inside the cellular environment. Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious facultative intracellular pathogen. Most vulnerable for neutrophil dysfunction and intracellular infection are immune-deficient patients or, as has recently been described, severely injured patients. These dysfunctional neutrophils can become hide-out spots or “Trojan horses” for S. aureus. This location offers protection to bacteria from most antibiotics and allows transportation of bacteria throughout the body inside moving neutrophils. When neutrophils die, these bacteria are released at different locations. In this review, we therefore focus on the capacity of several groups of antibiotics to enter human neutrophils, kill intracellular S. aureus and affect neutrophil function. We provide an overview of intracellular capacity of available antibiotics to aid in clinical decision making. In conclusion, quinolones, rifamycins and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim seem very effective against intracellular S. aureus in human neutrophils. Oxazolidinones, macrolides and lincosamides also exert intracellular antibiotic activity. Despite that the reviewed data are predominantly of in vitro origin, these findings should be taken into account when intracellular infection is suspected, as can be the case in severely injured patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrophils; polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN); intracellular antibiotics; Staphylococcus aureus; intracellular pathogen neutrophils; polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN); intracellular antibiotics; Staphylococcus aureus; intracellular pathogen
MDPI and ACS Style

Bongers, S.; Hellebrekers, P.; Leenen, L.P.H.; Koenderman, L.; Hietbrink, F. Intracellular Penetration and Effects of Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Inside Human Neutrophils: A Comprehensive Review. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020054

AMA Style

Bongers S, Hellebrekers P, Leenen LPH, Koenderman L, Hietbrink F. Intracellular Penetration and Effects of Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Inside Human Neutrophils: A Comprehensive Review. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(2):54. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020054

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bongers, Suzanne, Pien Hellebrekers, Luke P.H. Leenen, Leo Koenderman, and Falco Hietbrink. 2019. "Intracellular Penetration and Effects of Antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus Inside Human Neutrophils: A Comprehensive Review" Antibiotics 8, no. 2: 54. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8020054

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop