Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Future Prospects for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Novel Polyethers from Screening Actinoallomurus spp.
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antibiotics 2018, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7020048

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Aggregation Reduces Its Ceftriaxone Susceptibility

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20904, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Drug Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4855 KB, uploaded 15 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) has become an emerging threat worldwide and heightens the need for monitoring treatment failures. N. gonorrhoeae, a gram-negative bacterium responsible for gonorrhea, infects humans exclusively and can form aggregates during infection. While minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests are often used for determining antibiotic resistance development and treatment, the knowledge of the true MIC in individual patients and how it relates to this laboratory measure is not known. We examined the effect of aggregation on GC antibiotic susceptibility and the relationship between bacterial aggregate size and their antibiotic susceptibility. Aggregated GC have a higher survival rate when treated with ceftriaxone than non-aggregated GC, with bacteria in the core of the aggregates surviving the treatment. GC lacking opacity-associated protein or pili, or expressing a truncated lipooligosaccharide, three surface molecules that mediate GC-GC interactions, reduce both aggregation and ceftriaxone survival. This study demonstrates that the aggregation of N. gonorrhoeae can reduce the susceptibility to antibiotics, and suggests that antibiotic utilization can select for GC surface molecules that promote aggregation which in turn drive pathogen evolution. Inhibiting aggregation may be a potential way of increasing the efficacy of ceftriaxone treatment, consequently reducing treatment failure. View Full-Text
Keywords: gonorrhea; antibiotic resistance; increased susceptibility; biofilm; treatment failure; recurrence gonorrhea; antibiotic resistance; increased susceptibility; biofilm; treatment failure; recurrence
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.-C.; Litwin, M.; Sahiholnasab, Z.; Song, W.; Stein, D.C. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Aggregation Reduces Its Ceftriaxone Susceptibility. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 48.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top