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Antibiotics 2018, 7(2), 40;

Toxicological Assessment of a Lignin Core Nanoparticle Doped with Silver as an Alternative to Conventional Silver Core Nanoparticles

Department of Environmental & Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
Oregon Nanoscience and Microtechnologies Institute, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA
School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silver-Based Antimicrobials)
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Elevated levels of silver in the environment are anticipated with an increase in silver nanoparticle (AgNP) production and use in consumer products. To potentially reduce the burden of silver ion release from conventional solid core AgNPs, a lignin-core particle doped with silver ions and surface-stabilized with a polycationic electrolyte layer was engineered. Our objective was to determine whether any of the formulation components elicit toxicological responses using embryonic zebrafish. Ionic silver and free surface stabilizer were the most toxic constituents, although when associated separately or together with the lignin core particles, the toxicity of the formulations decreased significantly. The overall toxicity of lignin formulations containing silver was similar to other studies on a silver mass basis, and led to a significantly higher prevalence of uninflated swim bladder and yolk sac edema. Comparative analysis of dialyzed samples which had leached their loosely bound Ag+, showed a significant increase in mortality immediately after dialysis, in addition to eliciting significant increases in types of sublethal responses relative to the freshly prepared non-dialyzed samples. ICP-OES/MS analysis indicated that silver ion release from the particle into solution was continuous, and the rate of release differed when the surface stabilizer was not present. Overall, our study indicates that the lignin core is an effective alternative to conventional solid core AgNPs for potentially reducing the burden of silver released into the environment from a variety of consumer products. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanotechnology; environmentally-friendly; pesticide; antimicrobial; zebrafish nanotechnology; environmentally-friendly; pesticide; antimicrobial; zebrafish

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nix, C.E.; Harper, B.J.; Conner, C.G.; Richter, A.P.; Velev, O.D.; Harper, S.L. Toxicological Assessment of a Lignin Core Nanoparticle Doped with Silver as an Alternative to Conventional Silver Core Nanoparticles. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 40.

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