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Open AccessPerspective
Antibiotics 2018, 7(2), 35;

Silk Route to the Acceptance and Re-Implementation of Bacteriophage Therapy—Part II

Department of Neuro-Urology, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zürich, CH-8008 Zürich, Switzerland
Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne, Switzerland
Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany
Department of Experimental Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno 611 37, Czech Republic
Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Technology, Queen Astrid Military Hospital, B-1120 Brussels, Belgium
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences and School of Environment & Technology, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology, Tbilisi 0160, Georgia
Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Bishopstown, Cork T12 P928, Ireland
Department of Fundamental Microbiology, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
GeneCology Research Centre and the Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD 4558, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophages: Alternatives to Antibiotics and Beyond)
Full-Text   |   PDF [337 KB, uploaded 11 May 2018]


This perspective paper follows up on earlier communications on bacteriophage therapy that we wrote as a multidisciplinary and intercontinental expert-panel when we first met at a bacteriophage conference hosted by the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia in 2015. In the context of a society that is confronted with an ever-increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we build on the previously made recommendations and specifically address how the Nagoya Protocol might impact the further development of bacteriophage therapy. By reviewing a number of recently conducted case studies with bacteriophages involving patients with bacterial infections that could no longer be successfully treated by regular antibiotic therapy, we again stress the urgency and significance of the development of international guidelines and frameworks that might facilitate the legal and effective application of bacteriophage therapy by physicians and the receiving patients. Additionally, we list and comment on several recently started and ongoing clinical studies, including highly desired double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials. We conclude with an outlook on how recently developed DNA editing technologies are expected to further control and enhance the efficient application of bacteriophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; bacteriophages; bacteriophage therapy; Nagoya Protocol; CRISPR CAS antibiotic resistance; bacteriophages; bacteriophage therapy; Nagoya Protocol; CRISPR CAS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Expert round table on acceptance and re-implementation of bacteriophage therapy; Sybesma, W.; Rohde, C.; Bardy, P.; Pirnay, J.-P.; Cooper, I.; Caplin, J.; Chanishvili, N.; Coffey, A.; De Vos, D.; Scholz, A.H.; McCallin, S.; Püschner, H.M.; Pantucek, R.; Aminov, R.; Doškař, J.; Kurtbӧke, D.İ. Silk Route to the Acceptance and Re-Implementation of Bacteriophage Therapy—Part II. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 35.

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