Next Article in Journal
The Economic Impact of Starting, Stopping, and Restarting an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: A 14-Year Experience
Next Article in Special Issue
Multiple Pathways of Genome Plasticity Leading to Development of Antibiotic Resistance
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Impact of Acquired and Intrinsic Fosfomycin Resistance

Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics

Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CSIC, Darwin 3, 28049-Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2013, 2(2), 237-255;
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance)
The development of antibiotic resistance is usually associated with genetic changes, either to the acquisition of resistance genes, or to mutations in elements relevant for the activity of the antibiotic. However, in some situations resistance can be achieved without any genetic alteration; this is called phenotypic resistance. Non-inherited resistance is associated to specific processes such as growth in biofilms, a stationary growth phase or persistence. These situations might occur during infection but they are not usually considered in classical susceptibility tests at the clinical microbiology laboratories. Recent work has also shown that the susceptibility to antibiotics is highly dependent on the bacterial metabolism and that global metabolic regulators can modulate this phenotype. This modulation includes situations in which bacteria can be more resistant or more susceptible to antibiotics. Understanding these processes will thus help in establishing novel therapeutic approaches based on the actual susceptibility shown by bacteria during infection, which might differ from that determined in the laboratory. In this review, we discuss different examples of phenotypic resistance and the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk between bacterial metabolism and the susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, information on strategies currently under development for diminishing the phenotypic resistance to antibiotics of bacterial pathogens is presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenotypic resistance; biofilm; persistence; bacterial permeability; antibiotic resistance; resistome phenotypic resistance; biofilm; persistence; bacterial permeability; antibiotic resistance; resistome
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Corona, F.; Martinez, J.L. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics. Antibiotics 2013, 2, 237-255.

AMA Style

Corona F, Martinez JL. Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics. Antibiotics. 2013; 2(2):237-255.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Corona, Fernando, and Jose L. Martinez. 2013. "Phenotypic Resistance to Antibiotics" Antibiotics 2, no. 2: 237-255.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop