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Rhamnolipid Nano-Micelles versus Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer: A Comparative Study for Antibacterial Activity against Hospital-Acquired Infections and Toxicity Concerns

1
Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
2
Helwan Nanotechnology Center, Helwan University, Cairo 11792, Egypt
3
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo 11795, Egypt
4
Pharmacology and Toxicology Department, Modern University for Technology and Information, Cairo 12055, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Serena Riela and Marc Maresca
Antibiotics 2022, 11(5), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050605
Received: 20 March 2022 / Revised: 21 April 2022 / Accepted: 26 April 2022 / Published: 29 April 2022
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are considered to be a major global healthcare challenge, in large part because of the development of microbial resistance to currently approved antimicrobial drugs. HAIs are frequently preventable through infection prevention and control measures, with hand hygiene as a key activity. Improving hand hygiene was reported to reduce the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens and HAIs. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are commonly used due to their rapid action and broad spectrum of microbicidal activity, offering protection against bacteria and viruses. However, their frequent administration has been reported to be associated with many side effects, such as skin sensitivity, skin drying, and cracks, which promote further skin infections. Thus, there is an essential need to find alternative approaches to hand sanitation. Rhamnolipids are glycolipids produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and were shown to have broad antimicrobial activity as biosurfactants. We have previously demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of rhamnolipid nano-micelles against selected drug-resistant Gram-negative (Salmonella Montevideo and Salmonella Typhimurium) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae). To the best of our knowledge, the antimicrobial activity of rhamnolipid nano-micelles in comparison to alcohol-based hand sanitizers against microorganisms commonly causing HAIs in Egypt—such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus—has not yet been studied. In the present work, a comparative study of the antibacterial activity of rhamnolipid nano-micelles versus alcohol-based hand sanitizers was performed, and their safety profiles were also assessed. It was demonstrated that rhamnolipid nano-micelles had a comparable antibacterial activity to alcohol-based hand sanitizer, with a better safety profile, i.e., rhamnolipid nano-micelles are unlikely to cause any harmful effects on the skin. Thus, rhamnolipid nano-micelles could be recommended to replace alcohol-based hand sanitizers; however, they must still be tested by healthcare workers in healthcare settings to ascertain their antimicrobial activity and safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-drug resistant bacteria; rhamnolipids nano-micelles; ethyl-alcohol; hospital-acquired infections multi-drug resistant bacteria; rhamnolipids nano-micelles; ethyl-alcohol; hospital-acquired infections
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abo-zeid, Y.; Bakkar, M.R.; Elkhouly, G.E.; Raya, N.R.; Zaafar, D. Rhamnolipid Nano-Micelles versus Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer: A Comparative Study for Antibacterial Activity against Hospital-Acquired Infections and Toxicity Concerns. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 605. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050605

AMA Style

Abo-zeid Y, Bakkar MR, Elkhouly GE, Raya NR, Zaafar D. Rhamnolipid Nano-Micelles versus Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer: A Comparative Study for Antibacterial Activity against Hospital-Acquired Infections and Toxicity Concerns. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(5):605. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050605

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abo-zeid, Yasmin, Marwa R. Bakkar, Gehad E. Elkhouly, Nermeen R. Raya, and Dalia Zaafar. 2022. "Rhamnolipid Nano-Micelles versus Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer: A Comparative Study for Antibacterial Activity against Hospital-Acquired Infections and Toxicity Concerns" Antibiotics 11, no. 5: 605. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050605

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