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Article

Environmental and Pathogenic Carbapenem Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Harbour Distinct Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms

1
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Avenida da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
2
iBET, Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica, Apartado 12, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal
3
Section of Microbiology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lucia Bírošová
Antibiotics 2021, 10(9), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091118
Received: 25 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 16 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance in Wastewater and Its Treatment)
Wastewater treatment plants are important reservoirs and sources for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance into the environment. Here, two different groups of carbapenem resistant bacteria—the potentially environmental and the potentially pathogenic—were isolated from both the wastewater influent and discharged effluent of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant and characterized by whole genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Among the potentially environmental isolates, there was no detection of any acquired antibiotic resistance genes, which supports the idea that their resistance mechanisms are mainly intrinsic. On the contrary, the potentially pathogenic isolates presented a broad diversity of acquired antibiotic resistance genes towards different antibiotic classes, especially β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. All these bacteria showed multiple β-lactamase-encoding genes, some with carbapenemase activity, such as the blaKPC-type genes found in the Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility testing assays performed on these isolates also revealed that all had a multi-resistance phenotype, which indicates that the acquired resistance is their major antibiotic resistance mechanism. In conclusion, the two bacterial groups have distinct resistance mechanisms, which suggest that the antibiotic resistance in the environment can be a more complex problematic than that generally assumed. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; carbapenems; wastewater treatment plants; discharged effluents; environmental and pathogenic carbapenem resistant bacteria antibiotic resistance; carbapenems; wastewater treatment plants; discharged effluents; environmental and pathogenic carbapenem resistant bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliveira, M.; Leonardo, I.C.; Nunes, M.; Silva, A.F.; Barreto Crespo, M.T. Environmental and Pathogenic Carbapenem Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Harbour Distinct Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091118

AMA Style

Oliveira M, Leonardo IC, Nunes M, Silva AF, Barreto Crespo MT. Environmental and Pathogenic Carbapenem Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Harbour Distinct Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(9):1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091118

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliveira, Micaela, Inês C. Leonardo, Mónica Nunes, Ana F. Silva, and Maria T. Barreto Crespo 2021. "Environmental and Pathogenic Carbapenem Resistant Bacteria Isolated from a Wastewater Treatment Plant Harbour Distinct Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms" Antibiotics 10, no. 9: 1118. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10091118

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