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Open AccessArticle

Poultry Litter Contamination by Escherichia coli Resistant to Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human and Animal Use and Risk for Public Health in Cameroon

1
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundere 454, Cameroon
2
Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Health, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang 479, Cameroon
3
National Veterinary Laboratory (LANAVET), Garoua 503, Cameroon
4
Laboratoire de Recherche et d’Expertise Biomédicale (LABOREB), Yaoundé 35262, Cameroon
5
Department of Animal Production Technology, College of Technology, University of Bamenda, Bambili 39, Cameroon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marvasi Massimiliano
Antibiotics 2021, 10(4), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040402
Received: 6 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 April 2021 / Published: 8 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and the Environment: One Health Approach)
Residues of antimicrobials used in farm can exert selective pressure and accelerate the occurrence of multidrug resistant bacteria in litter. This study aimed to investigate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry litter. A total of 101 E. coli strains was isolated from 229 litter samples collected and stored for two months in the laboratory at room temperature. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. An overall resistance prevalence of 58.4% (95% CI: 48.8–68.0) was obtained with 59 E. coli strains resistant to various antimicrobial agents. High levels of resistance were observed with ciprofloxacin (21/59: 36%), imipenem (27/59: 45%), norfloxacin (44/59: 74%), ceftriaxone (44/59: 74%), and levofloxacin (44/59: 75%). These antimicrobials classified under the Watch group by WHO are indicators of the high AMR risk to public health in Cameroon. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that a greater probability of high level of E. coli multidrug resistance was associated with lack of training in poultry farming (OR = 0.13, p = 0.01), less experience in poultry farming (OR = 11.66 p = 0.04), and the high frequency of digestive tract disease (OR = 0.10; p = 0.001). This study revealed that poultry litter constitutes a potential source of dissemination of resistant germs from farm animals to the environment and humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; poultry litter; antimicrobial resistance; prevalence; risk factors; public health; Cameroon Escherichia coli; poultry litter; antimicrobial resistance; prevalence; risk factors; public health; Cameroon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moffo, F.; Mouiche, M.M.M.; Djomgang, H.K.; Tombe, P.; Wade, A.; Kochivi, F.L.; Dongmo, J.B.; Mbah, C.K.; Mapiefou, N.P.; Ngogang, M.P.; Awah-Ndukum, J. Poultry Litter Contamination by Escherichia coli Resistant to Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human and Animal Use and Risk for Public Health in Cameroon. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040402

AMA Style

Moffo F, Mouiche MMM, Djomgang HK, Tombe P, Wade A, Kochivi FL, Dongmo JB, Mbah CK, Mapiefou NP, Ngogang MP, Awah-Ndukum J. Poultry Litter Contamination by Escherichia coli Resistant to Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human and Animal Use and Risk for Public Health in Cameroon. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(4):402. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040402

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moffo, Frédéric; Mouiche, Mohamed M.M.; Djomgang, Hervé K.; Tombe, Patchely; Wade, Abel; Kochivi, Fabrice L.; Dongmo, Jarvis B.; Mbah, Cleophas K.; Mapiefou, Nabilah P.; Ngogang, Marie P.; Awah-Ndukum, Julius. 2021. "Poultry Litter Contamination by Escherichia coli Resistant to Critically Important Antimicrobials for Human and Animal Use and Risk for Public Health in Cameroon" Antibiotics 10, no. 4: 402. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040402

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