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Article

Nano- and Macroscale Imaging of Cholesterol Linoleate and Human Beta Defensin 2-Induced Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

1
Department of Biological Sciences, California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
3
Molecular Express, Inc., Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul M. Beringer
Antibiotics 2021, 10(11), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10111279
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 13 October 2021 / Accepted: 16 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies to Combat MDR Pathogens in CF)
The biofilm production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is central to establishing chronic infection in the airways in cystic fibrosis. Epithelial cells secrete an array of innate immune factors, including antimicrobial proteins and lipids, such as human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) and cholesteryl lineolate (CL), respectively, to combat colonization by pathogens. We have recently shown that HBD2 inhibits biofilm production by PA, possibly linked to interference with the transport of biofilm precursors. Considering that both HBD2 and CL are increased in airway fluids during infection, we hypothesized that CL synergizes with HBD2 in biofilm inhibition. CL was formulated in phospholipid-based liposomes (CL-PL). As measured by atomic force microscopy of single bacteria, CL-PL alone and in combination with HBD2 significantly increased bacterial surface roughness. Additionally, extracellular structures emanated from untreated bacterial cells, but not from cells treated with CL-PL and HBD2 alone and in combination. Crystal violet staining of the biofilm revealed that CL-PL combined with HBD2 effected a significant decrease of biofilm mass and increased the number of larger biofilm particles consistent with altered cohesion of formed biofilms. These data suggest that CL and HBD2 affect PA biofilm formation at the single cell and community-wide level and that the community-wide effects of CL are enhanced by HBD2. This research may inform future novel treatments for recalcitrant infections in the airways of CF patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: airways; antimicrobial lipids; antimicrobial peptides; atomic force microscopy; biofilm; cholesteryl linoleate; defensins; epithelial cells; Pseudomonas aeruginosa airways; antimicrobial lipids; antimicrobial peptides; atomic force microscopy; biofilm; cholesteryl linoleate; defensins; epithelial cells; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Beadell, B.A.; Chieng, A.; Parducho, K.R.; Dai, Z.; Ho, S.O.; Fujii, G.; Wang, Y.; Porter, E. Nano- and Macroscale Imaging of Cholesterol Linoleate and Human Beta Defensin 2-Induced Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10111279

AMA Style

Beadell BA, Chieng A, Parducho KR, Dai Z, Ho SO, Fujii G, Wang Y, Porter E. Nano- and Macroscale Imaging of Cholesterol Linoleate and Human Beta Defensin 2-Induced Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(11):1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10111279

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beadell, Brent A., Andy Chieng, Kevin R. Parducho, Zhipeng Dai, Sam O. Ho, Gary Fujii, Yixian Wang, and Edith Porter. 2021. "Nano- and Macroscale Imaging of Cholesterol Linoleate and Human Beta Defensin 2-Induced Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms" Antibiotics 10, no. 11: 1279. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10111279

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