The use of amperometric biosensors has attracted particular attention in recent years, both from researchers and from companies, as they have proven to be low-cost, reliable, and very sensitive devices, with a wide range of uses in different matrices. The continuous development of amperometric biosensors, since their use involves an enzyme, is specifically aimed at keeping and increasing the catalytic properties of the loaded protein, so as to be able to use the same device over time. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of glycerol and polysaccharides, in the presence of polycationic substances to constitute a hydrogel, in enhancing the enzymatic and analytic performance of a glucose biosensor. Initially, it was possible to verify how the deposition of the starch-based hydrogel, in addition to allowing the electropolymerization of the poly(p-phenylenediamine) polymer and the maintenance of its ability to shield the ascorbic acid, did not substantially limit the permeability towards hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, different biosensor designs, loading a mixture containing all the components (alone or in combination) and the enzyme, were tested in order to evaluate the changes of the apparent enzyme kinetic parameters, such as VMAX
, and analytical response in terms of Linear Region Slope, highlighting how the presence of all components (starch, glycerol, and polyethyleneimine) were able to substantially enhance the performance of the biosensors. The surface analysis of the biosensors was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). More, it was shown that the same performances were kept unchanged for seven days, proving the suitability of this biosensor design for short- and mid-term use.
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