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Open AccessArticle

The Presence of Polysaccharides, Glycerol, and Polyethyleneimine in Hydrogel Enhances the Performance of the Glucose Biosensor

Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Sperimentali, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/b, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Dipartimento di Agraria and Unità di Ricerca Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia 39, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Istituto CNR di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari—UOS Sassari, Traversa La Crucca 3, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(3), 95;
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 26 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
The use of amperometric biosensors has attracted particular attention in recent years, both from researchers and from companies, as they have proven to be low-cost, reliable, and very sensitive devices, with a wide range of uses in different matrices. The continuous development of amperometric biosensors, since their use involves an enzyme, is specifically aimed at keeping and increasing the catalytic properties of the loaded protein, so as to be able to use the same device over time. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of glycerol and polysaccharides, in the presence of polycationic substances to constitute a hydrogel, in enhancing the enzymatic and analytic performance of a glucose biosensor. Initially, it was possible to verify how the deposition of the starch-based hydrogel, in addition to allowing the electropolymerization of the poly(p-phenylenediamine) polymer and the maintenance of its ability to shield the ascorbic acid, did not substantially limit the permeability towards hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, different biosensor designs, loading a mixture containing all the components (alone or in combination) and the enzyme, were tested in order to evaluate the changes of the apparent enzyme kinetic parameters, such as VMAX and KM, and analytical response in terms of Linear Region Slope, highlighting how the presence of all components (starch, glycerol, and polyethyleneimine) were able to substantially enhance the performance of the biosensors. The surface analysis of the biosensors was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). More, it was shown that the same performances were kept unchanged for seven days, proving the suitability of this biosensor design for short- and mid-term use. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose biosensor; glycerol; starch-based hydrogel; polyethyleneimine glucose biosensor; glycerol; starch-based hydrogel; polyethyleneimine
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Fois, M.; Arrigo, P.; Bacciu, A.; Monti, P.; Marceddu, S.; Rocchitta, G.; Serra, P.A. The Presence of Polysaccharides, Glycerol, and Polyethyleneimine in Hydrogel Enhances the Performance of the Glucose Biosensor. Biosensors 2019, 9, 95.

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