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Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040088

Rapid Nanofabrication of Nanostructured Interdigitated Electrodes (nIDEs) for Long-Term In Vitro Analysis of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiated Cardiomyocytes

1
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
2
NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, FL 32826, USA
3
Department of Physics, Sanatana Dharma College, Alappuzha, Kerala 688003, India
4
CREOL—College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
5
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816, USA
6
Bridging the Innovation Development Gap (BRIDG), 200 Neocity Way, Kissimmee, FL 34744, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-based Biosensors)
Full-Text   |   PDF [990 KB, uploaded 11 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Adverse cardiac events are a major cause of late-stage drug development withdrawals. Improved in vitro systems for predicting cardiotoxicity are of great interest to prevent these events and to reduce the expenses involved in the introduction of cardiac drugs into the marketplace. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) affixed with a culture well provide a simple, suitable solution for in vitro analysis of cells because of their high sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and label-free, nondestructive analysis. Culturing human pluripotent stem cell differentiated cardiomyocytes onto these IDEs allows for the use of the IDE–cell combination in predictive toxicity assays. IDEs with smaller interdigitated distances allow for greater sensitivity, but typically require cleanroom fabrication. In this communication, we report the definition of a simple IDE geometry on a printed nanostructured substrate, demonstrate a Cellular Index (CI) increase from 0 to 7.7 for human cardiomyocytes, and a decrease in CI from 2.3 to 1 with increased concentration of the model drug, norepinephrine. The nanostructuring results in an increased sensitivity of our 1 mm pitch IDEs when compared to traditionally fabricated IDEs with a pitch of 10 μm (100 times larger electrode gap). The entire nanostructured IDE (nIDE) is fabricated and assembled in a rapid nanofabrication environment, thus allowing for iterative design changes and robust fabrication of devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanostructured Interdigitated Electrodes; shadow mask; cardiomyocytes; in vitro cellular analysis nanostructured Interdigitated Electrodes; shadow mask; cardiomyocytes; in vitro cellular analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hart, C.; Kundu, A.; Kumar, K.; Varma, S.J.; Thomas, J.; Rajaraman, S. Rapid Nanofabrication of Nanostructured Interdigitated Electrodes (nIDEs) for Long-Term In Vitro Analysis of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiated Cardiomyocytes. Biosensors 2018, 8, 88.

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