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Biosensors 2018, 8(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8020038

Raman Spectroscopic and Microscopic Analysis for Monitoring Renal Osteodystrophy Signatures

1
Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
3
Border Biomedical Research Center, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
4
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biomaterials and Histomorphometry Core Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
5
Division of Engineering, Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Abstract

Defining the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy (ROD) and its treatment efficacy are difficult, since many factors potentially affect bone quality. In this study, confocal Raman microscopy and parallel statistical analysis were used to identify differences in bone composition between healthy and ROD bone tissues through direct visualization of three main compositional parametric ratios, namely, calcium content, mineral-to-matrix, and carbonate-to-matrix. Besides the substantially lower values found in ROD specimens for these representative ratios, an obvious accumulation of phenylalanine is Raman spectroscopically observed for the first time in ROD samples and reported here. Thus, elevated phenylalanine could also be considered as an indicator of the disease. Since the image results are based on tens of thousands of spectra per sample, not only are the average ratios statistically significantly different for normal and ROD bone, but the method is clearly powerful in distinguishing between the two types of samples. Furthermore, the statistical outcomes demonstrate that only a relatively small number of spectra need to be recorded in order to classify the samples. This work thus opens the possibility of future development of in vivo Raman sensors for assessment of bone structure, remodeling, and mineralization, where different biomarkers are simultaneously detected with unprecedented accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; renal osteodystrophy; bone composition; statistical analysis Raman spectroscopy; renal osteodystrophy; bone composition; statistical analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ciubuc, J.D.; Manciu, M.; Maran, A.; Yaszemski, M.J.; Sundin, E.M.; Bennet, K.E.; Manciu, F.S. Raman Spectroscopic and Microscopic Analysis for Monitoring Renal Osteodystrophy Signatures. Biosensors 2018, 8, 38.

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