Next Article in Journal
Pencil It in: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-Drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and Their Direct Comparison to Screen-Printed Electrodes
Next Article in Special Issue
A Theoretical Study of Love Wave Sensors Based on ZnO–Glass Layered Structures for Application to Liquid Environments
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Surface Epitope Coverage on the Sensitivity of Displacement Assays that Employ Modified Nanoparticles: Using Bisphenol A as a Model Analyte
Previous Article in Special Issue
Rapid Detection of Food Allergens by Microfluidics ELISA-Based Optical Sensor
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 44;

A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine

KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Universität d. Saarlandes, Campus Geb. E7.1, Saarbrücken 66123, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeff D. Newman
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Nanobiosensors for Environmental, Food and Clinical Analyses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2608 KB, uploaded 18 August 2016]   |  


Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; cytochrome P450; electrochemistry; PAMAM dendrimers biosensor; cytochrome P450; electrochemistry; PAMAM dendrimers

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Müller, M.; Agarwal, N.; Kim, J. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine. Biosensors 2016, 6, 44.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biosensors EISSN 2079-6374 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top