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Article

Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, 5045 Emerging Technologies Building, 3120 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
PROFUSA, Inc., 345 Allerton Avenue, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 3003 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: A. Sheila Holmes-Smith
Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 398-416; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030398
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Based Sensing Technologies)
An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: luminescence; lactate; enzyme; biosensor; hydrogel luminescence; lactate; enzyme; biosensor; hydrogel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andrus, L.P.; Unruh, R.; Wisniewski, N.A.; McShane, M.J. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels. Biosensors 2015, 5, 398-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030398

AMA Style

Andrus LP, Unruh R, Wisniewski NA, McShane MJ. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels. Biosensors. 2015; 5(3):398-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030398

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andrus, Liam P., Rachel Unruh, Natalie A. Wisniewski, and Michael J. McShane. 2015. "Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels" Biosensors 5, no. 3: 398-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios5030398

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