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Biosensors 2015, 5(3), 398-416;

Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

Department of Biomedical Engineering, 5045 Emerging Technologies Building, 3120 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
PROFUSA, Inc., 345 Allerton Avenue, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 3003 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: A. Sheila Holmes-Smith
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 24 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescence Based Sensing Technologies)
Full-Text   |   PDF [735 KB, uploaded 7 July 2015]   |  


An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: luminescence; lactate; enzyme; biosensor; hydrogel luminescence; lactate; enzyme; biosensor; hydrogel

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Andrus, L.P.; Unruh, R.; Wisniewski, N.A.; McShane, M.J. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels. Biosensors 2015, 5, 398-416.

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