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Article

Mitigation of Data Packet Loss in Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Wearable Healthcare Ecosystem

1
The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2021, 11(10), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100350
Received: 16 August 2021 / Revised: 16 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 23 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Wearable Biosensors for Human Health Monitoring)
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) plays a critical role in wireless data transmission in wearable technologies. The previous work in this field has mostly focused on optimizing the transmission throughput and power consumption. However, not much work has been reported on a systematic evaluation of the data packet loss of BLE in the wearable healthcare ecosystem, which is essential for reliable and secure data transmission. Considering that diverse wearable devices are used as peripherals and off-the-shelf smartphones (Android, iPhone) or Raspberry Pi with various chipsets and operating systems (OS) as hubs in the wearable ecosystem, there is an urgent need to understand the factors that influence data loss in BLE and develop a mitigation solution to address the data loss issue. In this work, we have systematically evaluated packet losses in Android and iOS based wearable ecosystems and proposed a reduced transmission frequency and data bundling strategy along with queue-based packet transmission protocol to mitigate data packet loss in BLE. The proposed protocol provides flexibility to the peripheral device to work with the host either in real-time mode for timely data transmission or offline mode for accumulated data transmission when there is a request from the host. The test results show that lowered transmission frequency and data bundling reduce the packet losses to less than 1%. The queue-based packet transmission protocol eliminates any remaining packet loss by using re-request routines. The data loss mitigation protocol developed in this research can be widely applied to the BLE-based wearable ecosystem for various applications, such as body sensor networks (BSN), the Internet of Things (IoT), and smart homes. View Full-Text
Keywords: bluetooth low energy (BLE); data loss; data transmission; internet of things (IoT); wearable technologies; wireless communication bluetooth low energy (BLE); data loss; data transmission; internet of things (IoT); wearable technologies; wireless communication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tipparaju, V.V.; Mallires, K.R.; Wang, D.; Tsow, F.; Xian, X. Mitigation of Data Packet Loss in Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Wearable Healthcare Ecosystem. Biosensors 2021, 11, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100350

AMA Style

Tipparaju VV, Mallires KR, Wang D, Tsow F, Xian X. Mitigation of Data Packet Loss in Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Wearable Healthcare Ecosystem. Biosensors. 2021; 11(10):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tipparaju, Vishal V., Kyle R. Mallires, Di Wang, Francis Tsow, and Xiaojun Xian. 2021. "Mitigation of Data Packet Loss in Bluetooth Low Energy-Based Wearable Healthcare Ecosystem" Biosensors 11, no. 10: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios11100350

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