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Open AccessArticle

Exploiting Laser-Ablation ICP-MS for the Characterization of Salt-Derived Bismuth Films on Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Preliminary Investigation

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Teoriche ed Applicate, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Dunant, 3, 22100 Varese, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11, 21100 Como, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(9), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090119
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 31 August 2020 / Accepted: 8 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
The use of insoluble bismuth salts, typically BiPO4, is known to be a viable alternative to classical Bi3+ ion electrochemical reduction for the preparation of bismuth film electrodes (BiFE) on screen-printed electrodes. The freshly prepared electrodes are indefinitely stable, and the active bismuth film is simply formed by in situ reduction. Two aspects are still to be investigated, namely the bismuth distribution on the working electrode and the possible residual presence of the counteranion, namely phosphate. High-vacuum techniques such as electron microscopy or spectroscopy, which are commonly employed for this purpose, cannot be safely used: the bismuth surface is well-known to reconstruct and recrystallize under the electron beam in vacuum. Here, we demonstrate the suitability and the effectiveness of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS, a technique that vaporizes and analyzes the surface material under flowing helium at atmospheric pressure) for the characterization of BiFE. Fast and stable measurements of bismuth and phosphorous distribution are achieved with the advantage of a minimum alteration of the sample surface, avoiding possible interferences. This investigation evidenced how, upon reductive activation, the bismuth film is distributed with a radial symmetry and the phosphate counteranion is completely absent on the working electrode surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser ablation ICP-MS; surface characterization; bismuth film electrodes; screen-printed electrodes; trace electroanalysis laser ablation ICP-MS; surface characterization; bismuth film electrodes; screen-printed electrodes; trace electroanalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dossi, C.; Binda, G.; Monticelli, D.; Pozzi, A.; Recchia, S.; Spanu, D. Exploiting Laser-Ablation ICP-MS for the Characterization of Salt-Derived Bismuth Films on Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Preliminary Investigation. Biosensors 2020, 10, 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090119

AMA Style

Dossi C, Binda G, Monticelli D, Pozzi A, Recchia S, Spanu D. Exploiting Laser-Ablation ICP-MS for the Characterization of Salt-Derived Bismuth Films on Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Preliminary Investigation. Biosensors. 2020; 10(9):119. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090119

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dossi, Carlo; Binda, Gilberto; Monticelli, Damiano; Pozzi, Andrea; Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide. 2020. "Exploiting Laser-Ablation ICP-MS for the Characterization of Salt-Derived Bismuth Films on Screen-Printed Electrodes: A Preliminary Investigation" Biosensors 10, no. 9: 119. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10090119

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