The monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids provides valuable prognostic information regarding disease onset and progression. Most biosensing approaches use noninvasive screening tools and are conducted in order to improve early clinical diagnosis. However, biofouling of the sensing surface may disturb the quantification of circulating biomarkers in complex biological fluids. Thus, there is a great need for antifouling interfaces to be designed in order to reduce nonspecific adsorption and prevent inactivation of biological receptors and loss of sensitivity. To address these limitations and enable their application in clinical practice, a variety of plasmonic platforms have been recently developed for biomarker analysis in easily accessible biological fluids. This review presents an overview of the latest advances in the design of antifouling strategies for the detection of clinically relevant biomarkers on the basis of the characteristics of biological samples. The impact of nanoplasmonic biosensors as point-of-care devices has been examined for a wide range of biomarkers associated with cancer, inflammatory, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical applications in readily obtainable biofluids such as blood, saliva, urine, tears and cerebrospinal and synovial fluids, covering almost the whole range of plasmonic applications, from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), are also discussed.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited