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Open AccessReview

Low-Fouling Substrates for Plasmonic Sensing of Circulating Biomarkers in Biological Fluids

by Elba Mauriz 1,2
1
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana, s/n, 24071 León, Spain
2
Institute of Food Science and Technology (ICTAL), La Serna 58, 24007 León, Spain
Biosensors 2020, 10(6), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10060063
Received: 13 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 8 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nano- and Micro-Technologies in Biosensors)
The monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids provides valuable prognostic information regarding disease onset and progression. Most biosensing approaches use noninvasive screening tools and are conducted in order to improve early clinical diagnosis. However, biofouling of the sensing surface may disturb the quantification of circulating biomarkers in complex biological fluids. Thus, there is a great need for antifouling interfaces to be designed in order to reduce nonspecific adsorption and prevent inactivation of biological receptors and loss of sensitivity. To address these limitations and enable their application in clinical practice, a variety of plasmonic platforms have been recently developed for biomarker analysis in easily accessible biological fluids. This review presents an overview of the latest advances in the design of antifouling strategies for the detection of clinically relevant biomarkers on the basis of the characteristics of biological samples. The impact of nanoplasmonic biosensors as point-of-care devices has been examined for a wide range of biomarkers associated with cancer, inflammatory, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. Clinical applications in readily obtainable biofluids such as blood, saliva, urine, tears and cerebrospinal and synovial fluids, covering almost the whole range of plasmonic applications, from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoplasmonics; low-fouling; circulating biomarkers; biological fluids; SPR; LSPR; SERS nanoplasmonics; low-fouling; circulating biomarkers; biological fluids; SPR; LSPR; SERS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mauriz, E. Low-Fouling Substrates for Plasmonic Sensing of Circulating Biomarkers in Biological Fluids. Biosensors 2020, 10, 63.

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