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Open AccessArticle

Structural Characterization of Graphene Oxide: Surface Functional Groups and Fractionated Oxidative Debris

1
Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Polymer Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
2
Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz-6, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
3
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz-6, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081180
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 18 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Characterization, Synthesis and Applications of 2D Nanomaterials)
The purpose of this work is the structural analysis of graphene oxide (GO) and by means of a new structural model to answer the questions arising from the Lerf–Klinowski and the Lee structural models. Surface functional groups of GO layers and the oxidative debris (OD) stacked on them were investigated after OD was extracted. Analysis was performed successfully using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR), standardized Boehm potentiometric titration analysis, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis showed that graphene oxide layers, as well as oxidative debris contain different functional groups such as phenolic –OH, ketone, lactone, carboxyl, quinone and epoxy. Based on these results, a new structural model for GO layers is proposed, which covers all spectroscopic data and explains the presence of the other oxygen functionalities besides carboxyl, phenolic –OH and epoxy groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; base-washed graphene oxide; surface functional group analysis; oxidative debris; standardized Boehm titration method graphene oxide; base-washed graphene oxide; surface functional group analysis; oxidative debris; standardized Boehm titration method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aliyev, E.; Filiz, V.; Khan, M.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Abetz, C.; Abetz, V. Structural Characterization of Graphene Oxide: Surface Functional Groups and Fractionated Oxidative Debris. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1180.

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