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Open AccessArticle

Food Additive Titanium Dioxide and Its Fate in Commercial Foods

Division of Applied Food System, Major of Food Science & Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul 01797, Korea
Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493, Gangwondo, Korea
Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, Dongguk University-Seoul, Seoul 04620, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1175;
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 13 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials and Natural Extract)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most extensively utilized food additives (E171) in the food industry. Along with nanotechnology development, the concern about the presence of nanostructured particles in E171 TiO2 and commercial food products is growing. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of commercially available E171 TiO2 particles, including particle size distribution, were investigated, followed by their cytotoxicity and intestinal transport evaluation. The fate determination and quantification of E171 TiO2 in commercial foods were carried out based on the analytical procedure developed using simulated foods. The results demonstrated that TiO2 is a material mainly composed of particles larger than 100 nm, but present as an agglomerated or aggregated particle in commercial foods with amounts of less than 1% (wt/wt). Titanium dioxide particles generated reactive oxygen species and inhibited long-term colony formation, but the cytotoxicity was not related to particle size distribution or particle type (food- or general-grade). All TiO2 particles were mainly transported by microfold (M) cells, but also by intestinal tight junction. These findings will be useful for TiO2 application in the food industry and predicting its potential toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium dioxide; nanostructure; size distribution; quantification; fate; commercial foods titanium dioxide; nanostructure; size distribution; quantification; fate; commercial foods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwang, J.-S.; Yu, J.; Kim, H.-M.; Oh, J.-M.; Choi, S.-J. Food Additive Titanium Dioxide and Its Fate in Commercial Foods. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1175.

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