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Enzymatic Conversion of Oleuropein to Hydroxytyrosol Using Immobilized β-Glucosidase on Porous Carbon Cuboids

1
Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
3
Section of Organic Chemistry & Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9081166
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Heterocatalysis by Nanomaterials)
PDF [1532 KB, uploaded 14 August 2019]

Abstract

In the present study, we developed novel β-glucosidase-based nano-biocatalysts for the bioconversion of oleuropein to hydroxytyrosol. Using non-covalent or covalent immobilization approaches, β-glucosidases from almonds and Thermotoga maritima were attached for the first time on oxidized and non-oxidized porous carbon cuboids (PCC). Various methods were used for the characterization of the bio-nanoconjugates, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The oxidation state of the nanο-support and the immobilization procedure play a key role for the immobilization efficiency or the catalytic activity of the immobilized β-glucosidases. The nano-biocatalysts were successfully used for the hydrolysis of oleuropein, which leads to the formation of its bioactive derivative, hydroxytyrosol (up to 2.4 g L−1), which is a phenolic compound with numerous health benefits. The bio-nanoconjugates exhibited high thermal and operational stability (up to 240 hours of repeated use), which indicated that they are efficient tools for various bio-transformations.
Keywords: β-glucosidase; carbon cuboids; hydroxytyrosol; oleuropein; bio-catalysis; nano-biocatalyst β-glucosidase; carbon cuboids; hydroxytyrosol; oleuropein; bio-catalysis; nano-biocatalyst
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chatzikonstantinou, A.V.; Gkantzou, E.; Thomou, E.; Chalmpes, N.; Lyra, K.-M.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Spyrou, K.; Patila, M.; Gournis, D.; Stamatis, H. Enzymatic Conversion of Oleuropein to Hydroxytyrosol Using Immobilized β-Glucosidase on Porous Carbon Cuboids. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1166.

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