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Design and Fabrication of Wafer-Level Microlens Array with Moth-Eye Antireflective Nanostructures

1
Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, The Ministry of Education, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
2
Ministry of Education and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050747
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract

Wafer-level packaging (WLP) based camera module production has attracted widespread industrial interest because it offers high production efficiency and compact modules. However, suppressing the surface Fresnel reflection losses is challenging for wafer-level microlens arrays. Traditional dielectric antireflection (AR) coatings can cause wafer warpage and coating fractures during wafer lens coating and reflow. In this paper, we present the fabrication of a multiscale functional structure-based wafer-level lens array incorporating moth-eye nanostructures for AR effects, hundred-micrometer-level aspherical lenses for camera imaging, and a wafer-level substrate for wafer assembly. The proposed fabrication process includes manufacturing a wafer lens array metal mold using ultraprecise machining, chemically generating a nanopore array layer, and replicating the multiscale wafer lens array using ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography. A 50-mm-diameter wafer lens array is fabricated containing 437 accurate aspherical microlenses with diameters of 1.0 mm; each lens surface possesses nanostructures with an average period of ~120 nm. The microlens quality is sufficient for imaging in terms of profile accuracy and roughness. Compared to lenses without AR nanostructures, the transmittance of the fabricated multiscale lens is increased by ~3% under wavelengths of 400–750 nm. This research provides a foundation for the high-throughput and low-cost industrial application of wafer-level arrays with AR nanostructures. View Full-Text
Keywords: wafer-level microlens array; multiscale functional structures; moth-eye antireflection nanostructures; aspherical microlenses; nanoimprint lithography wafer-level microlens array; multiscale functional structures; moth-eye antireflection nanostructures; aspherical microlenses; nanoimprint lithography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xie, S.; Wan, X.; Yang, B.; Zhang, W.; Wei, X.; Zhuang, S. Design and Fabrication of Wafer-Level Microlens Array with Moth-Eye Antireflective Nanostructures. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 747.

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