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Correction published on 24 July 2019, see Nanomaterials 2019, 9(8), 1060.
Open AccessArticle

Number Concentration of Gold Nanoparticles in Suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as Traceable Methods Compared to Laboratory Methods

1
Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), 10587 Berlin, Germany
2
National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Middlesex TW11 0LW, UK
3
LGC Limited, Teddington TW11 0LY, UK
4
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB (SP), 11428 Stockholm, Sweden
5
Federal Institute of Metrology (METAS), 3003 Bern-Wabern, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), 14109 Berlin, Germany.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040502
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
The industrial exploitation of high value nanoparticles is in need of robust measurement methods to increase the control over product manufacturing and to implement quality assurance. InNanoPart, a European metrology project responded to these needs by developing methods for the measurement of particle size, concentration, agglomeration, surface chemistry and shell thickness. This paper illustrates the advancements this project produced for the traceable measurement of nanoparticle number concentration in liquids through small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS). It also details the validation of a range of laboratory methods, including particle tracking analysis (PTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-differential mobility analysis with a condensation particle counter (ES-DMA-CPC). We used a set of spherical gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters between 10 nm and 100 nm and discuss the results from the various techniques along with the associated uncertainty budgets. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; suspensions; traceability; comparison; number concentration; laboratory methods nanoparticles; suspensions; traceability; comparison; number concentration; laboratory methods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schavkan, A.; Gollwitzer, C.; Garcia-Diez, R.; Krumrey, M.; Minelli, C.; Bartczak, D.; Cuello-Nuñez, S.; Goenaga-Infante, H.; Rissler, J.; Sjöström, E.; Baur, G.B.; Vasilatou, K.; Shard, A.G. Number Concentration of Gold Nanoparticles in Suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as Traceable Methods Compared to Laboratory Methods. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 502. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040502

AMA Style

Schavkan A, Gollwitzer C, Garcia-Diez R, Krumrey M, Minelli C, Bartczak D, Cuello-Nuñez S, Goenaga-Infante H, Rissler J, Sjöström E, Baur GB, Vasilatou K, Shard AG. Number Concentration of Gold Nanoparticles in Suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as Traceable Methods Compared to Laboratory Methods. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(4):502. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schavkan, Alexander; Gollwitzer, Christian; Garcia-Diez, Raul; Krumrey, Michael; Minelli, Caterina; Bartczak, Dorota; Cuello-Nuñez, Susana; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Rissler, Jenny; Sjöström, Eva; Baur, Guillaume B.; Vasilatou, Konstantina; Shard, Alexander G. 2019. "Number Concentration of Gold Nanoparticles in Suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as Traceable Methods Compared to Laboratory Methods" Nanomaterials 9, no. 4: 502. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040502

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