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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030441

Three-Dimensionally Porous Li-Ion and Li-S Battery Cathodes: A Mini Review for Preparation Methods and Energy-Storage Performance

1
Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, China
2
Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro Fabrication, Ministry of Education, Department of Micro/Nano Electronics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environment and Energy Engineering, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei 230601, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract

Among many types of batteries, Li-ion and Li-S batteries have been of great interest because of their high energy density, low self-discharge, and non-memory effect, among other aspects. Emerging applications require batteries with higher performance factors, such as capacity and cycling life, which have motivated many research efforts on constructing high-performance anode and cathode materials. Herein, recent research about cathode materials are particularly focused on. Low electron and ion conductivities and poor electrode stability remain great challenges. Three-dimensional (3D) porous nanostructures commonly exhibit unique properties, such as good Li+ ion diffusion, short electron transfer pathway, robust mechanical strength, and sufficient space for volume change accommodation during charge/discharge, which make them promising for high-performance cathodes in batteries. A comprehensive summary about some cutting-edge investigations of Li-ion and Li-S battery cathodes is presented. As demonstrative examples, LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, V2O5, and LiNi1−x−yCoxMnyO2 in pristine and modified forms with a 3D porous structure for Li-ion batteries are introduced, with a particular focus on their preparation methods. Additionally, S loaded on 3D scaffolds for Li-S batteries is discussed. In addition, the main challenges and potential directions for next generation cathodes have been indicated, which would be beneficial to researchers and engineers developing high-performance electrodes for advanced secondary batteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: secondary battery; nanostructure; porosity; capacity; stability secondary battery; nanostructure; porosity; capacity; stability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, J.; Long, J.; Du, S.; Sun, B.; Zhu, S.; Li, J. Three-Dimensionally Porous Li-Ion and Li-S Battery Cathodes: A Mini Review for Preparation Methods and Energy-Storage Performance. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 441.

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