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Open AccessArticle

Nitridation Temperature Effect on Carbon Vanadium Oxynitrides for a Symmetric Supercapacitor

1
Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa
2
Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique d’Energie et de NanoFabrication, Groupe de Physique du Solide et Science des Materiaux, Departement de Physique FST-UCAD BP 5005 Dakar-Fan, Dakar 999066, Senegal
3
Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710, Science Campus, Christiaan de Wet and Pioneer Avenue, Florida Park, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1762; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121762
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
In this work, porous carbon-vanadium oxynitride (C-V2NO) nanostructures were obtained at different nitridation temperature of 700, 800 and 900 °C using a thermal decomposition process. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of all the nanomaterials showed a C-V2NO single-phase cubic structure. The C-V2NO obtained at 700 °C had a low surface area (91.6 m2 g−1), a moderate degree of graphitization, and a broader pore size distribution. The C-V2NO obtained at 800 °C displayed an interconnected network with higher surface area (121.6 m2 g−1) and a narrower pore size distribution. In contrast, at 900 °C, the C-V2NO displayed a disintegrated network and a decrease in the surface area (113 m2 g−1). All the synthesized C-V2NO yielded mesoporous oxynitride nanostructures which were evaluated in three-electrode configuration using 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte as a function of temperature. The C-V2[email protected] °C electrode gave the highest electrochemical performance as compared to its counterparts due to its superior properties. These results indicate that the nitridation temperature not only influences the morphology, structure and surface area of the C-V2NO but also their electrochemical performance. Additionally, a symmetric device fabricated from the C-V2[email protected] °C displayed specific energy and power of 38 W h kg−1 and 764 W kg−1, respectively, at 1 A g−1 in a wide operating voltage of 1.8 V. In terms of stability, it achieved 84.7% as capacity retention up to 10,000 cycles which was confirmed through the floating/aging measurement for up to 100 h at 10 A g−1. This symmetric capacitor is promising for practical applications due to the rapid and easy preparation of the carbon-vanadium oxynitride materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon-vanadium oxynitride; mesoporous; pore size distribution; nitridation temperature; symmetric capacitor carbon-vanadium oxynitride; mesoporous; pore size distribution; nitridation temperature; symmetric capacitor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ndiaye, N.M.; Sylla, N.F.; Ngom, B.D.; Mutuma, B.K.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Ray, S.C.; Manyala, N. Nitridation Temperature Effect on Carbon Vanadium Oxynitrides for a Symmetric Supercapacitor. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1762.

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