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Open AccessArticle

Cellulose Nanocrystals to Improve Stability and Functional Properties of Emulsified Film Based on Chitosan Nanoparticles and Beeswax

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Chemical Engineering Department, University of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Cilegon 42435, Banten, Indonesia
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Integrated Transformations of Renewable Matter Laboratory (EA TIMR 4297 UTC-ESCOM), Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiègne, France
3
Service d’Analyse Physico-Chimique (SAPC), Sorbonne Universités, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, rue du Dr Schweitzer, 60200 Compiègne, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121707
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Thin Films and 2D Materials)
The framework of this work was to develop an emulsion-based edible film based on a chitosan nanoparticle matrix with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a stabilizer and reinforcement filler. The chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized based on ionic cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate and glycerol as a plasticizer. The emulsified film was prepared through a combination system of Pickering emulsification and water evaporation. The oil-in-water emulsion was prepared by dispersing beeswax into an aqueous colloidal suspension of chitosan nanoparticles using high-speed homogenizer at room temperature. Various properties were characterized, including surface morphology, stability, water vapor barrier, mechanical properties, compatibility, and thermal behaviour. Experimental results established that CNCs and glycerol improve the homogeneity and stability of the beeswax dispersed droplets in the emulsion system which promotes the water-resistant properties but deteriorates the film strength at the same time. When incorporating 2.5% w/w CNCs, the tensile strength of the composite film reached the maximum value, 74.9 MPa, which was 32.5% higher than that of the pure chitosan film, while the optimum one was at 62.5 MPa, and was obtained by the addition of 25% w/w beeswax. All film characterizations demonstrated that the interaction between CNCs and chitosan molecules improved their physical and thermal properties.
Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles; Pickering emulsion; stability; water vapor resistant; mechanical strength chitosan nanoparticles; Pickering emulsion; stability; water vapor resistant; mechanical strength
MDPI and ACS Style

Wardhono, E.Y.; Pinem, M.P.; Kustiningsih, I.; Agustina, S.; Oudet, F.; Lefebvre, C.; Clausse, D.; Saleh, K.; Guénin, E. Cellulose Nanocrystals to Improve Stability and Functional Properties of Emulsified Film Based on Chitosan Nanoparticles and Beeswax. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1707.

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