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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090658

Evaluating Nanoshells and a Potent Biladiene Photosensitizer for Dual Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
2
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
3
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
4
Helen F. Graham Cancer Center & Research Institute, Newark, DE 19713, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 25 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Photothermal/Photodynamic Therapy)
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Abstract

Light-activated therapies are ideal for treating cancer because they are non-invasive and highly specific to the area of light application. Photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are two types of light-activated therapies that show great promise for treating solid tumors. In PTT, nanoparticles embedded within tumors emit heat in response to laser light that induces cancer cell death. In PDT, photosensitizers introduced to the diseased tissue transfer the absorbed light energy to nearby ground state molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen, which is a potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is toxic to cancer cells. Although PTT and PDT have been extensively evaluated as independent therapeutic strategies, they each face limitations that hinder their overall success. To overcome these limitations, we evaluated a dual PTT/PDT strategy for treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells mediated by a powerful combination of silica core/gold shell nanoshells (NSs) and palladium 10,10-dimethyl-5,15-bis(pentafluorophenyl)biladiene-based (Pd[DMBil1]-PEG750) photosensitizers (PSs), which enable PTT and PDT, respectively. We found that dual therapy works synergistically to induce more cell death than either therapy alone. Further, we determined that low doses of light can be applied in this approach to primarily induce apoptotic cell death, which is vastly preferred over necrotic cell death. Together, our results show that dual PTT/PDT using silica core/gold shell NSs and Pd[DMBil1]-PEG750 PSs is a comprehensive therapeutic strategy to non-invasively induce apoptotic cancer cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: photothermal therapy; photodynamic therapy; nanoparticle; biladiene; palladium; photosensitizer; apoptosis; synergy; photoresponsive; cancer photothermal therapy; photodynamic therapy; nanoparticle; biladiene; palladium; photosensitizer; apoptosis; synergy; photoresponsive; cancer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Riley, R.S.; O’Sullivan, R.K.; Potocny, A.M.; Rosenthal, J.; Day, E.S. Evaluating Nanoshells and a Potent Biladiene Photosensitizer for Dual Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 658.

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